|Accompanying Lewis map for Cork
Cork city (Part 1)
CORK, a sea-port, city, and a county of itself, and the head of a diocese, locally in the county of CORK, of which it is the capital, and in the province of MUNSTER 51 miles (S. W. by W.) from Waterford, and 126 (S. W. by S.) from Dublin ; containing 107,007 inhabitants, of which number, 84,000 are in the city and suburbs. This place, which in extent and importancge is the second city in Ireland, and is distinguished for its fine harbour, derived its ancient names Corcach and Corcach-Bascoin, signifying in the Irish language "a marshy place," from its 'situation on the navigable river Lee. The earliest authentic account of its origin occurs in Colgan's life of St. Nessan, to whose preceptor, St. Barr or Finbarr, is attributed the foundation of a cathedral church, to which, as the abode of that saint, such numbers of disciples resorted from all parts, that the desert in which it stood soon became the site of a considerable city. St. Nessan, according to the annals of the four masters, died in 551 : if this be correct, he could not be a disciple of St. Finbarr, unless the latter flourished at a period much earlier than that stated by Sir James Ware, namely, about the year 630. The original city was built on a limestone rock, on the margin of the south branch of the river, and appears to have grown up around the cathedral and westward as far as the monastery called Gill Abbey ; but what from a very early period has been more especially regarded as the city was erected on the island formed by the Lee, and its origin is ascribed to the Danes, who, after repeatedly plundering the old city and its religious establishments for more than 300 years, settled here in 1020, but did not long retain possession, being eighteen years afterwards defeated with great slaughter, and the whole of their property destroyed by fire. In 1080 the city is said to have been destroyed by lightning ; and eight years afterwards the Danes of Dublin, Waterford, and Wicklow united their forces to recover possession of it, but were defeated by a large body of the natives of Oneachach, now forming the district of West Carbery. According to other accounts, Dermot, the son of Foird-healbhach O'Brien, in the same year, laid waste and plundered the town, and carried away the relics of St. Finbarr.
Cork city (Part 2)
The noble harbour of Cork, which gave rise to the motto of the city, "Statio bene fida carinis," is admirably adapted to all the purposes of the most extended commerce ; and from its convenient situation, the perfect security with which numerous fleets may winter in a land-locked basin, and its excellent anchorage at all times, it became in time of war the rendezvous of large fleets and convoys, and the port from which the British navy was supplied with all kinds of provisions cured and prepared in a superior manner. The number of small craft on the coast, and of fishing hookers, pilot boats, lighters, and pleasure yachts in the river ; the dense population of its shores, inured to hardships and privations, and other considerations, tended to render Cork in the estimation of British statesmen one of the most important places in the empire: and the vast expenditure of public money for supplies during the war ; the detention at Cove, sometimes for months together, of large fleets of war, and powerful expeditions, with vast numbers of merchant vessels ; the sums laid out on public works in the harbour, the barracks at Cork, Ballincollig, and Fermoy, the powder-mills at Ballincollig, and various other works, for many years gave an extraordinary impulse to its commercial prosperity. What is considered more peculiarly the harbour is situated nine miles below the city, opposite the town of Cove, where ships of any burden may ride in safety ; the best anchorage for large ships is off Cove fort, now dismantled and occupied as a naval hospital, where there are from 5 to 8 fathoms of water ; vessels of great draught can pass up the river as far as Passage, within five miles and a half of the city, where they discharge and load by means of lighters ; and vessels drawing only 14 or 15 feet of water can proceed to the town qunys. On the east side of the entrance from the sea to the harbour is Roche's Tower lighthouse, having ten lamps which exhibit a steady deep red light towards the sea, and a bright light towards the harbour. The only naval depot and victualling-yard in Ireland were at Cove , but the establishment now consists merely of an agent and two clerks, and is maintained at an expense of £225 per annum. During the war and for several years after this was the port station of an admiral having a large fleet under his command ; but the admiral's flag and the navy have been withdrawn, and at present, the King's flag is seldom seen on the Irish coast, except on the Lord-Lieutenant's yacht. On Hal-bowling island are the spacious and admirably designed naval storehouses, tank, and other requisites, now abandoned ; on Spike island are powerful batteries commanding the entrance of the harbour, and on Rocky island is the depot for gunpowder. The ballast office, situated on Lnpp's island, was established by act of the 1st of Geo. IV., cap. 52, which also provided for the regulation of pilots and the improvement of the port and harbour, by a Board of Harbour Commissioners consisting of the mayor, two sheriffs, the parliamentary representatives of the city, five members of the common council, and 25 merchants, of whom the five senior members go out annually in rotation. Among the various improvements made by this board is the line of quays extending on both sides of the river from the North bridge on the north channel, round the eastern extremity of the island, to Parliament bridge on the south, a distance of one statute mile and a half. From the end of Penrose's quay a new line extending eastward is now nearly completed, and the marsh lying between it and the lower Glanmire road is in course of drainage: when this is accomplished the main central portion of the city will be encompassed with a noble line of quays, 18 feet high and nearly four statute miles in extent, built and coped with limestone principally from the quarries on the Little island and Rostellan. From 1827 to 1834 not less than £34,389 was expended on new quays from the proceeds of the harbour dues. The commissioners have also made an important improvement by deepening the bed of the river, which formerly admitted only vessels of 120 tons, but is now navigable to the quays for vessels of 250 tons ; shoals and dangerous banks have been removed by a steam-dredging machine, and buoys laid down to mark the limits of the channel ; excellent regulations have been adopted for the conduct of the pilots ; lights have been placed on the castle of Blackrock, and various other measures calculated to promote the prosperity of the port have been carried into effect. The average receipts of the commissioners, arising from duties on imports and exports, tonnage duty, and the sale of ballast, for six years to 1835 inclusive amounted to £7549. 16. 8., and the expenditure to £7762. 12. 0. A navigation wall, commencing nearly opposite to the custom-house and extending about an Irish mile along the south shore of the river, was commenced in 1763, to prevent the channel from being choked with the mud which is washed up at every tide ; and it is in contemplation to reclaim the extensive slab on the south of it, and render it available to the increase and improvement of the city. The custom-house, completed in 1818, and in which also the business of the excise is transacted, is a plain edifice situated at the eastern extremity of Lapp's island: the central front is ornamented with a pediment, in the tympanum of which are the royal arms, and connected with it are very extensive and appropriate buildings ; the long room is spacious and well adapted to the purpose ; the commercial buildings, on the South Mall, were erected in 1813, from a design by Sir Thomas Deane, by a proprietary of 129 £100 shareholders incorporated by charter in the 48th of Geo. III., for the accommodation of merchants, for which purpose they are much better adapted than the old exchange: they are fronted with cement, and ornamented with Ionic columns between the windows ; the coffee-room, on the first floor, in which the merchants meet, is 60 feet long, 35 feet wide, and 20 feet high, with a coved ceiling chastely embellished, and is well supplied with the English and Irish newspapers and periodicals. Communicating with the commercial buildings, and belonging to the same proprietary, is the Imperial Clarence hotel, well conducted by Mr. McDowel: attached to it is a ball-room, 70 feet long and 36 feet wide, elegantly fitted up, with a refreshment room adjoining, 50 feet long and 36 feet wide ; and there are twelve drawing-rooms for private families, and a commercial room for travellers, with every accommodation requisite in a first-rate hotel: all the principal mails start from it. The chamber of commerce, a neat building in Patrick-street, was erected by a body of seceders from the proprietary of the commercial buildings, who, within the last few years, in consequence of a dispute, associated under the above designation, but not, as the name implies, with any reference to the commercial interests of the port, which are under the superintendence of the committee of merchants : the large room is well supplied with newspapers and periodicals, and, like that of the commercial buildings, is open to naval and military officers and to all strangers ; the lower and other parts of the building are appropriated to the purposes of a commercial hotel. The post-office is a small but convenient building near the centre of the city: its revenue, in 1835, was £13,022. 4. 11. The first mail coach that entered the city was established between Dublin and Cork, on the 8th of July, 1789: there are now day and night mails from Dublin, and one from Waterford every morning, each carrying the English letters, but letters from London come through Dublin, unless ordered via Waterford ; and there are several other mail-coaches from Limerick, Bar try, Tralee, and other places, which arrive in the evening before the departure of the Dublin night mail.
Cork city (Part 3)
In the R. C. divisions Cork forms a separate bishoprick, comprising 35 parochial districts, containing 81 chapels: of these, 71 are parochial, 3 annexed to presentation convents, and one to each of the Dominican, Capuchin, Augustinian, Carmelite, and Franciscan friaries ; one to an Ursuline convent, and one to the Magdalen Asylum, Cork. The total number of the R. C. clergy, in 1835, including the bishop, was 74, of which 35 were parish priests and 39 coadjutors or curates. The parochial benefice of the bishop, who resides in Cork, is the union of Shandon, called the North Parish. The county of the city comprises a populous rural district of great beauty and fertility, watered by several small rivulets and intersected by the river Lee and its noble estuary: it is bounded on the north by the barony of Fermoy, on the east by that of Barrymore, on the south by Kerricurrihy, and on the west by Muskerry: it comprehends the parishes of St. Finbarr, Christ-Church or the Holy Trinity, St. Peter, St. Mary Shandon, St. Anne Shandon, St. Paul and St. Nicholas, all, except part of St. Finbarr's, within the city and suburbs, and those of Curricuppane, Carrigrohanemore, Kilcully, and Rathcoony, together with parts of the parishes of Killanully or Killingly, Carrigaline, Dunbullogue or Carrignavar, Ballinaboy, Inniskenny, Kilnaglory, Whitechurch, and Templemichael, without those limits ; and contains, according to the Ordnance survey, an area of 44,463 statute acres, of which, 2396 are occupied by the city and suburbs. The Grand Jury presentments for 1835 were as follow: new roads, bridges, &c., £611. 19. 7.; repairs of roads, bridges, &c., £2641. 14. 0-. ; public buildings, charities, officers' salaries, and miscellaneous expenses, £14,592. 1. 1. ; police establishment, £1148. 14. 3.; repayment of advances by Government, £1254. 19. 6. ; wide street commissioners for lighting, paving, &c., £8800 ; making a total of £29,049. 8. 5-.
Waterford city and county (Part 1)
WATERFORD, a sea-port, city and county of itself, and the seat of a diocese, locally in the county of WATERFORD, of which it is the capital, and in the pro-vince of MUNSTER, 67 miles (E. by N.) from Cork, and 75? (S. S. W.) from Dublin ; containing 28,821 inhabit-ants, of which number, 26,377 are in the city and suburbs. The ancient name of this place is said to have been Cuan-na-Grioth or Grian, signifying, in the Irish language, "the Haven of the Sun ;" it afterwards obtained the appellation of Gleann-na-Gleodh, or "the Valley of Lamentation," from a sanguinary conflict between the Irish and the Danes, in which the former, who were victorious, burnt it to the ground. By early writers it was called Menapia, under which name was implied the whole district, and by the Irish and Welsh, Portlargi, "the Port of the Thigh" (from the supposed similitude which the river at this place assumes to that part of the human body), which it still partly retains. Its more general name Waterford, which is of Danish origin, and supposed to be a corrup-tion of Vader-Fiord, "the Ford of the Father," or of Odin, a Scandinavian deity, was derived from a ford across St. John's river, which here falls into the river Suir. The original foundation of this city is by some writers referred to the year 155 ; but its antiquity as a place of any importance cannot be traced beyond the year 853, when it is said to have been built by the Danes or Ostmen, under their leader, Sitiricus or Sitric. The city, for that period, was a place of great strength, surrounded with walls ; and the scattered notices of this colony which are still preserved show that the inhabitants maintained among themselves an independent and sovereign autho-rity, and that they were for a long time the terror, if not the absolute masters, of a vast extent of country. Up to the time of the English settlement, this colony had strictly avoided all intimate connection with the native inhabitants of the country, and had preserved all its ancient customs, manners and character unchanged. In 893 it is recorded that Patrick, son of Ivor or Imar, King of the Danes of Waterford, was slain ; and in 937, that the Danes of Waterford wasted all the county of Meath. According to the annals of Tigernach, Imar, King of Waterford, laid waste the county of Kildare ; and in 995 he succeeded Anlaffe in the occupation of Dublin ; he died in the year 1000, and was succeeded, in 1003, by his son Reginald, who built the celebrated tower known by his name, corruptly called Reynold's and now the Ring tower. This tower was erected in 1003, and is said to be the oldest in Ireland ; in 1171 it was held as a fortress by Strongbow ; in 1463 a mint was established in it by Edw. IV ; and in 1819 it was rebuilt and formed into a police barrack. Another Imar of Waterford is recorded to have been slain, in 1022, by the king of Ossory, and to have been succeeded by a second Reginald, styled by the Irish O'Hiver, who in the same year was killed by Sitric II. In 1038, Cumana, King of the Danes of Waterford, was killed by the people of Upper Ossory, or, as is otherwise stated, by the treachery of his own subjects ; and in the same year the city was burnt by Dermot Mac-mel Membo, King of Leinster ; it was also again burnt in 1087 by the people of Dublin, The Danes of this place having, in 1096, embraced the Christian religion, elected Malchus, a Benedictine monk, who had been for some time at Winchester, for their bishop ; and sent a letter to Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, to request his con-secration, which was granted ; and Malchus, on his return, assisted in the erection of a cathedral, which was dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and is now called Christ-Church. It appears that, about this time, there was a mint at this place, a silver coin having been found with the inscription "Wadter" on the reverse, and attributed to one of the Danish kings. In 1171, after the tak-ing of Wexford by Hervey de Montemarisco and his com-panions, Raymond Le Gros landed, in May, at Dundonolf or Dundrone, four miles from Waterford, with a force of 10 knights and 70 archers, sent as an advance guard by Earl Strongbow, who had spent the whole of the pre-ceding winter in preparation for the invasion of Leinster, in support of the deposed sovereign Dermod McMurrough. This party, for their immediate security, threw up an intrenchment and a temporary fortification, which was soon attacked by an irregular force of 3000 men, consisting of the Danes of this place and the troops of the princes of Decies and Idrone. The English retreated from this formidable superiority of numbers into their fort, and the Irish pressing closely upon them were partly within their gates, when Raymond slew their leader ; and his associates, animated by his example, compelled the assailants to retire. Raymond ordered a numerous herd of cattle collected by the English from the adjacent country to be driven furiously against the retiring army, which was thus thrown into confusion, and seizing the advantage, rushed with impetuosity upon the disordered troops and gained a complete vic-tory, committed dreadful slaughter, and returned to the fort with 70 captives, all principal inhabitants of the city. These offered large sums for their ransom and promised to surrender the city as the price of their liberty ; but Raymond, listening to the advice of Hervey de Montemarisco, adopted the barbarous policy of put-ting them all to death. Raymond and Hervey waited here for the arrival of Earl Strongbow, who, on the eve of the festival of St. Bartholomew, appeared in the har-bour and landed with 200 knights and 1200 infantry, all chosen men and well-appointed soldiers. Strongbow was immediately joined by Raymond and his party, and on the following morning marched in military array to attack the city, which had received considerable reinforcements from the neighbouring chieftains, and was prepared for a vigorous defence. The English were twice repulsed, and twice returned to the attack, when Raymond, perceiving a house of timber projecting from the eastern angle of the city walls, and supported on the outside by posts, prevailed on his men to make a third assault and direct their whole force against this quarter. They began by hewing down these posts, and the house falling, drew away with it such a portion of the walls as made a breach wide enough to admit the besiegers, who rushed in, bearing down all opposition, and the city became a scene of indiscriminate carnage and rapine. Reginald, King of the Danes, and Malachy O'Feolian, prince of Decies, had been seized and were just on the point of being put to death, when the sudden arrival of Dermod McMurrough, King of' Leinster, and his forces, with Fitzstephen and other English leaders, prevented further slaughter. Dermod embraced his new associates, and introduced his daughter Eva to her affianced husband, Strongbow ; the marriage having been im-mediately solemnized, he departed with his allies, and leaving a sufficient garrison in Waterford, proceeded to lay siege to Dublin.
Earl Strongbow, on his return from the conquest of that city, with the lordship of which he was invested, received a summons from Hen. II., who was at that time in Normandy, to attend him : and leaving his forces quartered in Dublin and Waterford, he obeyed the sum-mons, and offering to deliver up to the king these cities and other principal towns, on condition of having the remainder of his acquisitions confirmed to him and to his heirs, the king agreed to his proposals, and im-mediately prepared to follow him to Ireland. Henry's fleet, consisting of 240 vessels, having on board from 400 to 500 knights and 4000 soldiers, arrived in Waterford harbour in October, 1172 ; and on the festival of St. Luke, the king landed to take possession of the kingdom as its rightful sovereign, by virtue of Pope Adrian's bull, and was joyfully received by the English, and by the Irish nobility who were in alliance with them. Strongbow immediately made a formal surrender to the king of the city of Waterford, and did homage to him for the principality of Leinster ; and Henry received here the submission of the people of Wexford, and of Dermot McCarthy, King of Cork. He afterwards proceeded to Lismore, Cashel, Dublin, and other prin-cipal towns ; and on his return to England, aware of its great importance as one of the principal maritime towns, he left the city of Waterford in the custody of Hum-phrey de Bohun, Robert Fitz-Bernard, and Hugh de Gundeville, with a train of twenty knights. A new garrison was soon afterwards placed in the city, which at the same time was greatly enlarged, and surrounded with new walls ; the old fortifications were repaired and strengthened with towers and gates, and the inhabitants were also made freemen by royal charter. Strongbow being soon after invested with the sole government of Ireland, removed Robert Fitz-Bernard and his garrison to Normandy ; and agreeably to the king's instructions, took upon himself the government of this city, as well as that of Dublin. In all the predatory expeditions which the English made into the territories of the natives, this city was always the centre of action in the south, the general rendezvous of the invaders, and the place in which all their spoils were deposited ; but Strongbow having sustained a considerable defeat in Ossory, suddenly found himself shut up here in equal dread of an attack from without and of an insurrection within. From this distress, however, he was speedily relieved by Raymond le Gros, who arrived from England with a fleet of twenty ships, having on board 20 knights, 100 horsemen, and 300 archers and other in-fantry ; and uniting his forces with those of Strongbow, they marched to Wexford, leaving Purcell governor of the city. But Purcell attempting to follow them in a boat on the Suir, was intercepted and slain by the Danish inhabitants, who also put to death all the Eng-lish in the city, except a few who saved themselves in Reginald's tower, where they defended themselves with so much resolution and success that the insurgents yielded up the city to them on conditions little favourable to themselves. In 1177, soon after the arrival of Fitz--Andelm, as chief governor, in Ireland, an assembly of the Irish clergy was held in this city, in which the brief lately granted by Pope Alexander and the bull of Pope Adrian, granting to Hen. II. the sovereignty of Ireland (under the authority of which the first act of that mo-narch was the appointment of Augustine to the vacant bishoprick of Waterford, whom he ordered to be con-secrated by the archbishop of Dublin), were solemnly promulgated, and the English sovereign's title to the dominion of Ireland was declared in form, with dreadful denunciations against any who should impeach the grant made by the Pope, or resist the sovereign autho-rity of that monarch. In 1179, Robert le Poer, who was governor of Waterford, was associated with Hugh de Lacy in the government of the English settlements, and subsequently received a grant of the entire county of Waterford, with the reservation of the city and the cantred of the Ostmen. Waterford, from its situation and importance, be-came the centre of communication with England, as well as one of the chief places of trade in the island ; and during the same year, Robert Fitzstephen, Milo de Cogan, and Philip de Braos landed here with fresh forces from England. In the Easter of 1185, John, Earl of Morton, son of Hen. II., accompanied by Ralph Glanville, Justiciary of England, and other distinguished persons, and attended with a retinue of 400 or 500 knights and about 4000 men, disembarked at this port to take upon himself the office of Lord Chief Governor of Ireland, and was received with congratulation by the different native chiefs. The earliest coinage in Water-ford, of which indubitable evidence remains, is that of John, while Lord of Ireland, of which several silver halfpence, weighing from 10 to 10? grains, are still preserved. After his accession to the throne of England, John granted to the citizens, in 1204, a fair for nine days, and in 1206 a charter of incorporation, apparently in many respects little more than a recital and confirma-tion of privileges previously granted. In 1211, that monarch landed here on his way to Dublin to arrange the affairs of the Irish Government ; and during his stay in the city, he ordered pence, halfpence and far-things to be coined there, of the same standard as in England, to be equally current in both countries. In the early part of this century were founded nearly all the religious houses that anciently existed here, of which the Benedictine priory of St. John's was by King John and the others by the inhabitants. In 1232, Hen. III. granted a new charter, in which the election of a mayor is first mentioned : the citizens, by this charter, were also empowered to choose a coroner, and to have a guildhall, a prison, and a common seal in two portions. In 1252, the city was burned to the ground ; and in 1280 it was so much injured by a conflagration, that it was a long time before it recovered its former prosperity. In 1292, the custody of the castle and of the county at large was granted to the heirs of Thomas Fitz-Anthony, in the same manner as it had been enjoyed during Edward's minority by John Fitz-Thomas, and subsequently by his cousin, Thomas Fitz-Maurice, from whom it had been recovered at law. Edw. I. was the next sovereign after John that coined money here, and several of his pence and halfpence are still preserved.
On the 4th of September, 1368, the Poers of the county of Waterford having assembled all their forces, and being joined by O'Driscoll with his galleys and men, embarked with the intention of plundering the city. The mayor, informed of their design, prepared to resist them, and accompanied by the sheriff of the county, the master of the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, and a number of merchant strangers and English, sailed towards the enemy in order to give them battle. A sanguinary conflict ensued, in which the Poers and O'Driscolls were victorious ; the mayor, sheriff, master of the hospital, 36 of the principal citizens, and 60 of the merchant strangers and English were killed ; on the side of the enemy were killed the Baron of Don Isle, head of the Poers, together with his brother and many of his sept, besides a great number of the O'Driscolls. In 1377, in consideration of the heavy burdens and charges the citizens had sustained in the repairs of the city and in its defence against the native Irish and other enemies, Edw. III. granted them the cocket ens-toms of the port for ten years ; at the same time en-joining them, as the city was exposed and defenceless towards the sea, to take care that it be firmly sur-rounded and provided, and that the quays be repaired and enclosed, so that it might be protected against various enemies who were preparing to attack it on that side. In consideration of the great expenses of the citi-zens in these fortifications, and in defending the city from the almost daily incursions of the Irish and of foreign enemies, Rd. II. granted them the customs and duties upon all goods and merchandise brought into it for sale. On the 2nd of October, 1394, that monarch landed at Waterford with an army of 4000 men-at-arms and 30,000 archers, accompanied by the Duke of Glou-cester, the Earls of Nottingham and Rutland, and several other distinguished noblemen, and remained here till the following Shrovetide ; and in 1399 he again landed here and was joyfully received by the inhabitants ; after spending six days in the city, he proceeded to Kilkenny. In 1413, the mayor and bailiffs, in prosecution of their feud with the Irish sept of O'Driscoll, embarked with an armed force in one of the ships belonging to the city, and sailed to the chieftain's strong castle of Baltimore, on the coast of Cork, where they arrived on the night of Christmas-day. The mayor landed his men, and marching up to the castle gate, desired the porter to tell his lord that the mayor of Waterford was arrived in the haven with a vessel laden with wine, and would gladly come in to see him ; upon the delivery of this message, the gate was opened, and the whole party in-stantly rushing in, O'Driscoll and all his family were made prisoners. In 1447, the city and the county were granted to John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, created Earl of Waterford, with palatine authority ; and in the same year also it was enacted by statute of the 25th of Hen. VI., that it should be lawful for the mayor and citizens of Waterford to assemble what forces they pleased, and to ride in warlike array, with banners dis-played, against the Powers, Walshes, Grants, and Dal-tons, who had for a long time been traitors and rebels, and continually preyed upon the king's subjects of Waterford and parts adjacent. In 1460, O'Driscoll con-tinuing his hostilities, all communication between his country and this or any of the English ports was rigidly prohibited by act of parliament. This chieftain, on the invitation of the Powers, whose hostility continued without intermission, brought his forces by sea to Tra-more, on the first intelligence of which the mayor and citizens marched out in battle array to Ballymacdane, where they met with the enemy and gave them a signal defeat ; 160 of their number were killed, and several taken prisoners, among whom were O'Driscoll-Oge and six of his sons, who with three of his galleys were brought in triumph to Waterford. Edw. IV. was the last sovereign that coined money here ; in the 15th of his reign, all the mints of Ireland were abolished except those of Waterford, Dublin, and Drogheda. In 1484, a shipment by some merchants of Waterford to Sluys, in Flanders, in preference to Calais, raised the important question of Ireland's being bound by statutes made in England, which was finally decided in the affirmative.
In 1487, during the plot for raising Lambert Simnel to the throne, the citizens, while the insurrection in his favour was almost universal, maintained a firm and unshaken loyalty to Hen. VII. The Earl of Kildare, then Lord-Deputy, having proclaimed him king in Dublin, sent to the mayor of Waterford, commanding him to receive the pretender and assist him with all his forces ; to which, with the advice of the council, he wrote in re-ply, by a messenger of his own, that the citizens of Waterford regarded all the supporters of Simnel as rebels, on the receipt of which answer, the Earl ordered the messenger to be hanged. He then sent his herald to command the mayor and citizens to acknowledge and proclaim the new king, on pain of being hanged at their doors ; this message they received in the boat, without allowing the herald to land, and sent back word that they hoped to save the false king and his adherents the trouble of coming so far for such a purpose, by meeting him on the road. Preparations for battle were accord-ingly made, in which the Butlers and other septs then in the city, and men from several other towns, joined the mayor and citizens ; but the departure of Simnel for England suspended further proceedings ; he, how-ever, assembled a parliament previously to his embark-ation, in which he declared the franchises and the pos-sessions of the city forfeited. Hen. VII., to acknowledge the steady loyalty of the citizens, wrote a letter of thanks to them immediately after the battle of Stoke, and empowered them to seize the persons and appro-priate the goods of as many of the insurgents as they could secure. Sir Richard Edgeombe, who, after these disturbances, was sent with a considerable force to re-ceive new oaths of allegiance from the leading men in Ireland, arrived in this city from Kinsale, in June, 1488, and was honourably entertained by the mayor and citizens, to whom he promised so to represent mat-ters to the king that, in the event of the Earl of Kil-dare being again raised to authority, they should be secured from his resentment, by an exemption from his jurisdiction. In a parliament held in 1492, the citizens, who it was stated "had by false surmises been attainted, by authority of parliament, in the time of Gerald; Earl of Kildare, Lord-Deputy," were formally restored to the enjoyment of their grants, authorities, and privileges. In 1497, they again testified their fide-lity to the same sovereign, by communicating to the king intelligence of the arrival of Perkin Warbeck at Cork, on a second expedition against Ireland, and assuring him of their loyalty and affection : on this occasion, among other honours conferred upon the city, was the motto, Urbs intacta manet Waterford. Perkin, being joined by the Earl of Desmond and his numerous followers, immediately marched with an army of 2400 men to attack Waterford, which they assailed on the west; the siege lasted eleven days, during which time the citizens were victorious in several skirmishes. Eleven of the enemy's ships arrived at Passage during the siege, two of which landed their men at Lombard s weir ; but they were quickly overpowered by the citizens, who killed many of them and carried several into the city as prisoners, and beheaded them in the market-place ; one of the vessels was sunk in the river by the cannon on Reginald's tower, and the whole of the crew perished. At length, on the 3rd of August, the enemy, before daybreak, raised the siege, and retired with great loss towards Ballycashin. Perkin embarked at Passage for England, but was pursued by the citizens with four of their ships to Cork, thence to Kinsale, and lastly to Cornwall. In acknowledgment of these dis-tinguished services, the citizens received two letters from the king) in the first of which, previously to Perkin's apprehension, he offers them 1000 marks to secure him. In 1536, Hen. VIII. wrote to the mayor and citizens by Wm. Wyse, a gentleman of the city in high favour at court, and conferred on them a gilt sword and a cap of liberty to be borne before the mayor, which are still carefully preserved. In 1547, Sir Edward Belling-ham, who had been sent over by the Lord Protector and privy council of England, landed here with an army of 600 horse and 400 loot ; and in 1549 the Lord-Deputy Sidney, who had encamped at Clonmel, and was appre-hensive of being attacked by the insurgent chiefs, sent to the mayor for a few soldiers for three days ; but the citizens pleading their privilege, refused him any assis-tance. In 1588, Duncannon was fortified, in conse-quence of an invasion of rhe Spaniards, who committed great depredations in the counties of Waterford and Wexford. In April, 1600, the Lord-Deputy came to Waterford, where he received the submission of some of the Fitzgeralds of the Decies and the Powers. On the accession of Jas. I., great disaffection prevailed in the city, and dangerous tumults arose at his proclamation. In consequence of these and of similar demonstrations of hostility, the Lord-Deputy Mountjoy made a progress into Munster, and arrived at Grace-Dieu, within the liberties of the city, on the 5th of May, 1603, and sum-moned the mayor to open the gates and admit him with his majesty's army into the city, to which the citizens replied that, by a charter of King John, they were exempt from having soldiers quartered upon them, and would admit only the Lord-Deputy himself. Two R. C. clergy-men, in the habit of their order and bearing the cross erect, went into the deputy's camp to defend the conduct of the citizens ; but the Lord-Deputy threatening "to draw King James' sword and cut the charter of King John to pieces, destroy the city and strew it with salt," the citizens opened their gates to him and his army, and swore allegiance to the new monarch ; after which, leaving a strong garrison to keep them in subjection, Mountjoy departed.
In the civil war which commenced in 1641, this city experienced its full share of calamity. At the com-mencement of that year the city was, without any effort for its defence, surrendered to the son of Lord Mountgarret, and the country around it was laid waste by the insurgents, to whose cause the inhabitants were so attached, that the confederate Catholics had their print-ing-press here, under the conduct of a man named Bourke. In 1646, the pope's nuncio, with a view of setting aside the peace which had been concluded be-tween the contending parties, summoned all the R. C. clergy to Waterford, on the ground of an apostolic visi-tation, and for the purpose of holding a national synod ; but so opposed to the measure were the inhabitants, fearing it might compromise the interests cf their reli-gion, that when the heralds caine from Dublin to proclaim it, no one would shew them the mayor's house, nor could they, after three days' stay, obtain from the proper functionaries any :other answer than that the peace ought first to have been proclaimed in Kilkenny. In 1649, Cromwell, having surprised Carrick, crossed the Suir to besiege Waterford ; and although. his army, from the fatigue it had undergone, did not amount to more than 5000 foot, 2000 horse, and 500 dragoons, the terror of his approach had such an effect on the citizens, who had refused to accept the troops offered to them by the Marquess of Ormonde, that they sent to consult that nobleman about the conditions on which they should surrender the city. The Marquess, how-ever, assuring them that it rested only with themselves to do their duty and ensure their safety, they gladly accepted a reinforcement of 1500 men under Gen. Far-rel, and began to prepare for their defence. The siege commenced on the 3rd of October ; and Ormonde, struggling against desertion and other difficulties, kept together some forces with which he hovered between the city and Clonmel. The city being surrounded with batteries and other fortifications, was thought to be sufficiently defended ; and Cromwell therefore adopted the plan of a tedious investment as the best mode of attack. On the 23rd, however, he despatched six troops of dragoons and four of horse to the town of Passage, about six miles to the south, and these taking possession of the fort which commanded the river at that place, cut off the communication between Waterford and the entrance of the harbour. The serious inconveniences resulting from the occupation of this post by the enemy, rendered it necessary to make an attempt for its reco-very, for which purpose Gen. Farrel marched with some troops, expecting to be assisted from the opposite side of the river by Col. Wogan, of Duncannon Fort. He was, however, driven back by a strong force suddenly detached against him from Cromwell's army, and would have suffered great loss, but for the prompt covering of his retreat by the Marquess of Ormonde with a party of only 50 horse, the citizens having refused any facilities for conducting a larger body over the ferry. After this failure, the Marquess offered to transport his troops from the north to the south side of the Suir, for the purpose of recovering that post and quartering them in huts under the walls, that they might not be burdensome to the city, but receive pay and provisions from the country ; but this proposal was also rejected, and it was even moved in the council to seize Ormonde's per-son, and to attack his troops as enemies. Irritated at their obstinacy and ingratitude, Ormoude withdrew his army, and left the citizens to defend themselves, by their own resources, against the vigorous attacks of Cromwell ; their courage giving way, they declared that, unless they received a reinforcement of troops and a supply of provisions, they could make no further resist-ance. At length, when the assault was hourly expected, the Marquess appeared again with his forces on the north side of the Suir, and Cromwell having already lost about 1000 of his men by sickness and the chances of war, prepared to raise the siege. Ormonde now proposed to cross the river and attack the retreating army in the rear ; but the citizens obstinately urged their objections, from an apprehension that the city might become the winter quarters of his army.
Early in the following June, Waterford was again besieged by the parliamentary forces under the com-mand of Gen. Ireton, on whose approach General Pres-ton, then governor, sent to the Marquess of Ormonde to inform him that, unless supplies were immediately forwarded, he should be obliged to surrender ; these, however, not being sent, the garrison was soon reduced to the greatest distress. Though the siege was begun early in June, Ireton did not summon the city to surrender till the 25th of July ; soon after which the besieged made a sally, but were driven back with loss ; and a party of musketeers being sent by the besiegers to burn the suburbs, the smoke being driven by the wind into the city, so terrified the besieged, that they thought the whole army had made an assault, and began to seek safety by the eastern gate. Two brothers named Croker, who led the party that burnt the suburbs, under cover of the smoke which concealed the smallness of their number, scaled the walls and marched forward to the main guard, putting all they met to the sword. The besieged, firmly believing that the whole of Ireton's army had forced their way into the city, were seized with a panic, which enabled this small party to secure all their great guns, and march with them to the western gate, which they opened to their fellow soldiers, who immediately marched in. The citadel still held out, but after a protracted treaty surrendered on the 10th of August, upon terms favourable to the citizens generally, whose persons and property were guaranteed from in-jury. The violence of the parliamentarian army was chiefly directed against the churches, works of art, and remains of antiquity, not even the tombs of the dead being spared from mutilation. From this period till the year 1656, the old government of the city by mayor and sheriffs was superseded by a government of com-missioners appointed by Cromwell, whose most devoted partisans had supreme power in the city. Under these commissioners orders were issued prohibiting Catholics from trading within or without doors ; high courts of justice were instituted here as in other cities, for the trial of persons concerned in the massacre of 1641 ; and under this usurped authority the public buildings, quays, streets, roads, and other works were generally improved. Col. Lawrence, the first governor under the parliament, was succeeded in that office by Col. Leigh, to whom, and to the justices of the peace, the lord-deputy and council issued an order to apprehend forthwith all Quakers resorting to that city, and to ship them either from that port or from Passage, to Bristol, to be com-mitted to the care of that city. On the restoration, Richard Power was appointed governor of the county and city of Waterford ; and on the revival of the corpo-ration, the inhabitants petitioned the Duke of Ormonde to be admitted to the enjoyment of the franchise, not-withstanding religious differences ; but so far from obtaining this object, it was ordered by the lord-lieu-tenant and council, in 1678, that, with the exception of some merchants, artificers, and others, they should be expelled from the city, though many were re-admitted. During the interval of peace from 1664 to 1681, the trade of the port continued to increase rapidly ; the duties paid at the custom-house, at the former period, amounted to #7044, and at the latter to #14,826.
Jas. II., on the day after the battle of the Boyne, arrived at this place, and immediately embarked for France in a ship which lay in the harbour ready to receive him. On the 20th of July, Major-Gen. Kirk advanced with a body of forces from Carrick, and sent a trumpeter to the city to summon the garrison to sur-render ; this was first refused in mild terms, but soon after, the citizens sent to know the terms that would be granted, which, being the same as those offered to the garrison of Drogheda, were rejected. The garrison then demanded the enjoyment of their estates, the freedom of their religion, and liberty to march out with their arms and baggage, which being refused, preparations were made for a regular siege ; but on the 25th the garrison was allowed to march out with arms and baggage, and was conveyed to Mallow. On the follow-ing day King William entered the city, and took mea-sures to prevent the property of any person from being damaged ; on his return from the siege of Limerick, he eml)arked at this port, on the 5th of September, for England. At the close of this century the city is re-presented as being in a wretched condition ; the houses in ruin, the streets filthy and uneven, and the roads extremely bad ; but, under the management of successive mayors, it was greatly improved both in comfort and appearance early in the following century. In 1732, a tumultuous assembly rose to prevent the exportation of corn ; another riotous meeting, occasioned by the scarcity of provisions, took place in 1744, when the military were called to suppress the riot, and several lives were lost, In the disturbances of 1798 the citizens took no part: several meetings of United Irishmen were held here, but the peace of the city was preserved by the victory obtained over the insurgents at Ross.
The city is beautifully situated on the southern bank of the Suir, about 16 miles from its influx into the sea: it extends principally along the margin of the river, having an elevation very little above high water mark, except at the western extremity, where it occu-pies some high and precipitous eminences, and at the eastern extremity, where are some more gentle eleva-tions: on the south, bordering on the stream called John's river, which here falls into the Suir, is a large tract of level marshy land stretching towards Tramore. Near the western extremity of the city, and connecting it with the small suburb of Ferrybank in the county of Kilkenny, is a bridge of wood, 832 feet in length and 40 in breadth, supported on stone abutments and 40 sets of piers of oak, undertaken by a company incorpo-rated in 1793, who subscribed #30,000 in shares of #100 each, and erected by Mr. Cox, a native of Boston, at an expense so much below the estimated cost, that #90 only was paid on each share of #100, which now sells for #170 : it was begun April 30th, 1793, and opened Jan. 18th, 1794: the company have a sinking fund for the repair or rebuilding of the bridge, if neces-sary, and the tolls are let for about #4000 per annum. Over John's river, which skirts the city on the east and south-east, are two ancient bridges, called respectively John's bridge and William-street bridge ; and one of modern erection called Catherine's bridge, from the ancient abbey of St. Catherine, near which it is situated. On the opposite side of the Suir are some lofty hills, from which the city is seen to great advantage, having in front the river and the splendid quay extending from the bridge to the mouth of John's river, one mile in length, with scarcely any interruption, and forming a remarkably fine promenade. The quay was enlarged in 1705, by throwing down the city walls on this side, with one of the gates, which, with the great ditch, for-merly divided it into two portions. The houses, though irregular in their style of architecture, form a range of buildings of lofty and imposing appearance, among which the ancient tower built by Reginald the Dane, and now occupied as a police barrack, is a conspicuous object. In front of these buildings are a broad flagged footway and a Macadamised carriage road ; and the part along t.he margin of the river is separated from these and forms a beautiful promenade. At the east end of the city is the Mall, from which a new and spacious street has recently been opened, forming the principal western entrance on the Cork road. The streets, with the exception of King-street, in a line parallel with the quay from the west end to the centre of the city, and of the line from its termination to John's bridge, are generally short, narrow, and irregular in their direction : the number of houses, in 1831, was 3376. The English mails have been changed from Dunmore to Waterford, which will cause a great saving of time : the first passed up on June 24th, 1837. The city is lighted with gas by a company of 400 shareholders, who have expended #14,000 in the construction of' works ; but from some defect in the old act of parliament, under the provisions of which the public lighting of the city was vested in the corporation, it cannot be lighted more than seven months in the year ; the amount of the rates collected for this purpose is about #640 per annum. On the south western side of the city are barracks for artillery, capable of accom-modating 129 officers and men and 78 horses, with an hospital for 12 men ; and also for infantry, which will accommodate 551 officers and men and 9 horses, with an hospital for 30 men. The Waterford Institution was founded in 1820, and consists of 100 proprietors of shares of #10. 10. each, who contribute one guinea, and of 90 subscribers who pay two guineas, annually. It is con-ducted by a committee, consisting of a president, vice-president, and seven members, with a secretary and treasurer ; their weekly meetings, formerly held in Lady-lane, are now held at the Chamber of Commerce, in King-street, where are an increasing library, reading--room, and a small collection of minerals. The Literary and Scientific Society was formed in 1832, for the cir-culation of knowledge by means of lectures and essays : this society possesses a good philosophical apparatus, and during the session, which usually commences in Dec. and terminates in May, essays are read and dis-cussed at the stated meetings, and public lectures are occasionally delivered by its members. A newspaper was published here so early as the year 1729, since which period several others have successively risen and declined ; at present there are three in circulation. The Agricultural Society for the promotion of improve-ment in agriculture, feeding of cattle, and in agricultural implements, by the distribution of prizes among the farmers of the district, is liberally supported and has been of great benefit. The Horticultural Society, under the patronage of the Marquess of Waterford, was founded in 1833, for promoting by fair and open com-petition the culture of every species of vegetable pro duction ; it comprehends the adjoining counties, and spring and summer shews are annually held, when prizes are awarded for the best specimens of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The market-days for live pigs and cattle are Monday and Thursday; and fairs are held on May 4th, June 24th, and Oct. 25th. The market-house is a commodious and well-arranged building, recently erected on a plot of ground adjoining the river.
This place has never been much distinguished for its manufactures ; it had once some celebrity for the weav-ing of a narrow woollen stuff, which was in great demand in every part of Ireland, and was also exported in considerable quantities ; but of this trade, and also of the hall in which the article was sold, there are now not the smallest remains. There were also manufactories for salt, smoked sprats ; japanned wares of various des-criptions, established here by Thomas Wyse, Esq. ; and for linen and linen thread, which latter was celebrated all over Ireland, established here by a family named Smith, who brought with them a number of workmen from the north of Ireland ; but all these have succes-sively failed, as has also a glass bottle manufactory, which was established opposite to Ballycarvet. A glass-ma-nufactory of superior description was, however, esta-blished in 1783, and is now conducted by Messrs. Gat-chell and Co., who have a considerable export trade, par-ticularly to America : in this establishment about 70 per-sons are employed. There is a starch and blue manufac-tory, also two iron-foundries ; and till within the last few years there was an extensive manufacture of glue, of which considerable quantities were sent to England. There is a small establishment for rectifying spirits ; and public breweries have been established and brought to such perfection as to supersede the necessity of any importation from England ; they are conducted upon a scale affording the means of a considerable export of beer to Newfoundland, and latterly to England, which trade is progressively increasing. But it is to its com-merce, promoted by the favourable situation of its port, that Waterford is principally indebted for its importance, and for which it has been distinguished from a very early period. The liberal policy, adopted in 1704 and 1705, of admitting to the freedom of the city foreign traders of all descriptions, induced several merchants from Italy, Spain, France, Portugal, Holland, and other countries to settle here. Before agriculture became so extensive as it is at present, the principal trade was the exportation of beef, hides, and skins, not only to the English settlements but to several ports of Spain ; cheese also, of an inferior quality, called "Mullahawn," was exported in considerable quantities, and an exten-sive trade was carried on with Newfoundland. At present the principal trade is with England, to which is exported a large quantity of agricultural produce of every kind, butter, pork, bacon, flour and all kinds of provisions ; and since the establishment of steam-packet communication, great numbers of live cattle have been sent across the channel. The value of these exports, in 1813, was #2,200,454. 16. ; but for several years afterwards it did not exceed #1,500,000; but this decrease was rather the result of reduced prices than of any dimi-nution of the quantity. On an average of three years from 1831 to 1834, the quantity of provisions exported annu ally was 38 tierces of beef, 880 tierces and 1795 barrels of pork, 392,613 flitches of bacon, 132,384 cwts. of butter, 19,139 cwts. of lard, 152,113 barrels of wheat, 160,954 barrels of oats, 27,045 barrels of barley, 403,852 cwts. of flour, 18,640 cwts. of oatmeal, and 2857 cwts. of bread ; and of live stock the number annually exported, during the same period, was on an average 44,241 pigs, 5808 head of cattle, and 9729 sheep, the aggregate value of all which amounted to #2,092,668. 14. per an-num. The principal imports are tobacco, sugar, tea, coffee, pepper, tallow, pitch and tar, hemp, flax, wine, iron, potashes, hides, cotton, dye-stuffs, timber, staves, saltpetre, and brimstone, from foreign ports ; and coal, culm, soap, iron, slate, spirits, printed calico, earthen-ware, hardware, crown and window glass, glass bottles, bricks, tiles, gunpowder, and bark, from the ports of Great Britain. Notwithstanding the extent of its export trade and the importation in return of foreign produce of every kind, the merchants and traders until recently have not invested much property in shipping of their own, but have chiefly employed English shipping ; and even till the year 1820, the port was considered one of the worst in Ireland, in respect of the accommodation it afforded for repairing ships. This disadvantage has at length been removed by the construction of a dockyard on the bank of the river, opposite to the city, into which vessels of any burden may be drawn completely out of the water for repair, and in which have been built several vessels that are much admired for beauty of model and soundness of workmanship. The trade of the port has been much promoted by the establishment of a Cham-ber of Commerce, incorporated by act of parliament in 1815. The building, in King-street, is large and com-modious : the ground floor is occupied by the officers of the Harbour Commissioners, and the pilot-office ; and there are a news-room, and a reading-room and library belonging to the Waterford Institution ; the business of the savings' bank is also transacted here, and the upper part of the building is occupied as an hotel. The amount of deposits in the savings' bank, for the year ending Nov. 20th, 1833, was #77,073. The numerous and peculiar advantages which Waterford enjoys for the extension of its commerce are still but beginning to be fully known and duly appre-ciated. The river Suir is navigable for ships of very large burden, having sufficient depth of water to allow vessels of 800 tons' burden to discharge their cargoes opposite to the Custom-house, About two miles below the city is an island called the Little Island, in the form of an equilateral triangle ; and in the King's channel, which embraces two sides of this island, is the greatest depth of water, but from its position it requires particu-lar winds to work through it, and it is also rendered dangerous by a sunken rock, called the Golden Rock. In the other channel, which is called the Ford, and which is both the shorter and more direct passage, there was a depth of only two feet at low water. This great disadvantage naturally attracted the attention of mer-cantile and nautical men, and in 1816, through the ex-ertions of the Chamber of Commerce, an act was obtained for deepening, cleansing, and otherwise im-proving the port and harbour, for supplying ships with ballast, and for regulating the pilots. Under this act the management is vested in 24 commissioners, 12 of whom are nominated by the Chamber of Commerce, 7 by the corporation of the city, and 5 by the Commercial As-sociation of Clonmel, under its provisions, arrangements were speedily made for deep-ening the channel called the Ford, and this has been so effectually accomplished that there is now at high water of ordinary spring tides a depth of 21 feet. The ex-pense of this improvement amounted to #21,901. 15., towards which Government contributed #14,588, and the remainder was paid from duties levied on the ship-ping under the authority of the act ; there are now three excellent pilot boats, one of 40 and two of 30 tons' burden. During the latter years of the war, the average number of ships which annually entered the port was 995, of the aggregate burden of 91,385 tons ; but on the sudden transition from war to peace, and more especially from the alteration in the navi gation laws, which enabled the Colonial settlements, particularly Newfoundland, to procure from the cheap-er markets of the continent those supplies of provisions which they had exclusively obtained from the mother country, the trade of the port was materially diminished. Since the deepening of the Ford, however, and the reduction of the port duties, the trade has been rapidly increasing ; in 1825, the number of ships that entered the port was nearly equal to the former, and the trade has since continued to make rapid advances. In the year ending Jan. 5th, 1835, 57 British ships, of the aggregate burden of 11,489 tons, and 5 foreign ships, of 984 tons aggregate burden, entered inwards ; and 28 British ships, together of 4658 tons, and 1 foreign vessel of 169 tons, cleared out from this port in the foreign trade. During the same period, 1376 steam-vessels, coasters, and colliers, of the aggregate burden of 154,004 tons, entered inwards, and 1028, of the collective burden of 123,879 tons, cleared outwards, from and to Great Britain ; and 132 of 6136 tons aggregate burden entered inwards, and 170 of 6848 tons cleared outwards, from and to Irish ports. The number of ships registered as belonging to the port, in the same year, was 115, of the aggregate burden of 11,986 tons. The amount of duties paid at the custom-house, for 1835, was #135,844. 12. 4., and for 1836, #137,126. 7. 9: the amount of excise duties collected within the revenue district of Waterford, for the former year, was #60,835. 12. 10. The quay, in the centre of which is the custom-house, a neat and commodious build-ing, presents a very brilliant appearance at night, having two ranges of gas lights, of which that on the verge of the quay is provided by the Harbour Commissioners from the profits of the fees and emoluments of the water-bailiff's office, by agreement with the corporation ; the benefit of these lights has been experienced in a very high degree by vessels loading and unloading by night. The Harbour Commissioners have also established a quay and river watch, which has been very useful in the protection of property and the preservation of human life ; it appears that, since its first establish-ment in 1822, not less than 300 persons have been saved from drowning. They have also made a com-plete survey and published a chart of the coast for 12 miles to the east and west of Hook lighthouse, for the purpose of making it better known to mariners as an asylum harbour. The port affords peculiar facilities to steam-vessels of the larger class, which,
from the great depth of water in the river, are not obliged, as in most other parts, to wait at the harbour's mouth for high water, but can approach the quay at any period of the tide. The Harbour Commissioners have also placed vessels or hulks firmly moored about 60 or 70 feet from the edge of the quay, with a strong gangway or bridge from 10 to 12 feet wide, and fenced with iron railings, reaching from the hulks to the quay, which, having one extremity resting on the hulk, rises and falls with the tide ; by this means the steamers can discharge or receive a cargo or passengers even at low water, and without the labour or risk of throwing out or taking up an anchor, but merely by casting off from or making fast to the moorings close to the hulks. Steam-vessels of a superior class sail regularly, three times in the week, with goods, passengers, and live stock to Bristol and Liverpool ; and being able to enter or leave the river at any state of the tide, have an opportunity of arranging their time of sailing so as to take advantage of the time of high water in other less favoured ports ; hence passengers are not more than one night at sea, the passage being usually made, except in extreme cases, in 18 or 24 hours. The geographical situation, with the natural and acquired advantages of the port, and the moderate rate of duties, render it a very desirable station for the introduction of a portion of the East India and China free trade, which has been lately obtained, the Messrs. Kehoe having imported tea direct from China. The harbour is 42 leagues from the Land's End, in Cornwall, to the lighthouse on the peninsular of Hook, which lies N.? E. When making for it from the south or east, it is necessary to keep Slievenaman, a remarkable mountain inland, N. E.? N., or the Great Salter island E. S. E., till the lighthouse is seen on the east side of the harbour ; Hook Point must be kept at the distance of a cable's length, to avoid falling into irregular streams of tide that run near it ; the west side of the harbour is deep along shore as far as Creden's Head, and shews a red light at Dunmore pier. Passing the Hook, anchorage may be obtained with a flood tide or leading wind at Passage. The city first received a charter of incorporation from King John, who, on the 3rd of July, 1205, granted the city, with its port and all appurtenances, to his citizens of Waterford, with murage and all free customs, liber-ties, and privileges enjoyed by the burgesses of Bristol. Hen. III., by repeated writs to the Archbishop of Dublin, and to his Lord Justi-ciary of Ireland, confirmed this grant ; and in the 16th of his reign, by a new char-ter, granted the whole of the city to be held by the citizens at a fee-farm rent of 100 marks, with exemption from toll, lastage, pontage, passage, and other immunities. Edw. II., in 1309, confirmed the preceding char-ter, and in 1310 granted the citizens certain customs for murage for seven years, to assist them in fortifying the town. Edw. III., by writ issued in the 2nd of his reign, directed that the mayor should be annually elected by the citizens, and sworn in before the commons, unless the Lords Justices, or one of the barons of the exche-quer, might be in the city at the time. The same mo narch, in the 30th of his reign, confirmed by charter all previous grants, and in the 38th and 45th extended the privileges of the port ; in 1377 he granted the custom called Cocket, for ten years, to the citizens, for the re-pair of the quays and enclosing the city. Rich. II., in 1380, confirmed the charter of Hen. III., and in the fol-lowing year granted the corporation licence to sell wine, and, in 1385, all the customs of things sold here for 24 years, to be expended on the fortifications of the city. Hen. IV. confirmed all previous charters, and also granted certain annual sums from the cocket, for strengthening the walls ; and Hen. V. confirmed all pre-vious grants made by his predecessors, and by charter, in the 1st of his reign, appointed the mayor the king's escheator ; to have, with the commons, cognizance of all pleas of assize, and other privileges and immunities, which were confirmed by Hen. VI. in the 20th of his reign, who also granted #30 per ann. from the fee farm rent, to be applied for 30 years to the repair of the walls and fortifications. Edw. IV. granted the citizens a charter, conferring some additional privileges, among which was that of bearing a sword before the mayor ; and Heir. VII. granted the mayor and corporation the power to have a gallows and a prison, and appointed the mayor and bailiffs justices for gaol delivery in all cases of felony, treason, and other crimes. Hen. VIII., Edw. VI., and Mary, severally granted confirmatory charters ; and Elizabeth, in the 9th of her reign, by letters patent, granted the privilege of electing the mayor and bailiffs annually, and of choosing a recorder, town-clerk, sword-bearer, and various other officers. In the 16th of her reign, Elizabeth granted the citizens a new charter; constituting the city, with all lands be-longing to it, a county of itself, under the designation of the city and county of the city of Waterford,' ordain-ing that the corporation should consist of a mayor, two sheriffs, and citizens ; and by another charter in the 25th of her reign, the same queen granted to the corpo-ration the lands of the grange, Ballycrokeele, and the new town adjoining Waterford on the south side (contain-ing 100 acres), with the abbey of Kilkellen and its demesnes on the north side. In the 5th of Jas. I., the citizens, who had refused to proclaim that monarch's accession to the throne, were served with a writ of Quo Warranto, to which they pleaded the several charters previously enumerated ; and their plea with some small alterations and omissions, as "by the king's privy council were thought fit," was allowed ; and the char-ter having remained in the hands of the monarch, as forfeited, was, after a disclaimer by the citizens in a Quo Warranto, restored by patent under the great seal of England, on the 26th of May, 1626, in the 2nd year of the reign of Chins. I. This charter was explained and amended by a supplementary charter granted by the same monarch, in 1631, and is now the governing charter. It confers upon the mayor and council the returns of assize, precepts, bills and warrants, the sum mons and escheats of the exchequer, and the precepts of itinerant judges ; a grant of the city and various lands ; with all other possessions of which it had for-merly been seized, to be held for ever in free burgage at the usual rents ; a grant of the site and precincts of the abbey of Kilculliheen, with all its possessions and numerous parsonages, to be held in fee-farm at the rent of #59. 1. 8. per annum. The same charter granted also to the corporation, for ever, the harbour of Water-ford, from the entrance between Rodgbank and Rindoan to Carrigmagriffin, and as far as the sca ebbed and flowed, with all its waters, soil, and fisheries ; the office of admiralty and an admiralty court, reserving to the Lord High Admiral of England and Ireland all pirates' goods and wrecks of the sea ; the power of taxing the inhabitants for all public charges and works ; of form-ing themselves into guilds and fraternities, similar to those of Bristol ; of taking murage custom, and of having a corporation of the staple, to be governed by a mayor of the staple and two constables ; of holding courts or councils, once every week, for the conduct and government of the orphan children left to their charge by deed or will ; of receiving the cocket customs and half the prisage of wine, together with all waifs, strays, felons' goods, and deodands, and of having a gaol under the custody of the sheriffs, and many other privileges. Under this charter the government of the city is vested in a mayor, eighteen aldermen, eighteen assist-ants, a recorder, and two sheriffs (who altogether con-stitute the common coun-cil) ; a coroner, clerk of the crown and peace, a town-clerk, notary public, mares-chal, water-bailiff, searcher, guager, sword-bearer, four serjeants-at-mace, constables, and other officers. The mayor is chosen from among the aldermen annually on the Monday after the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin, by a majority of the common council, and sworn into office before his predecessor, or, in his absence, before the council, on the Michaelmas-day following. The sheriffs are chosen at the same time from among the assistants, by which body the recorder is appointed ; all the other officers of the corporation are chosen by the mayor and council, except the serjeants-at-mace, who are appointed by the mayor and sheriffs. The mayor, the recorder, and the four senior aldermen are justices of the peace within the city and the county of the city, and also within the county of Waterford. The freedom of the city is inherited by birth, and obtained by marriage with a freeman's daughter, or by appren-ticeship to a freeman ; the citizens are exempted from all toll, lastage, portage, pontage, murage, and other duties throughout the realm. The city first sent mem-bers to parliament in the year 1374, apparently by pres-criptive right, as no grant of the elective franchise is found in any of its charters ; from that period it con-tinued to send two members to the Irish parliament till the Union, from which time it returned only one to the Imperial parliament, till the passing of the act of the 2nd of Win. IV., cap. 88, which restored its original number. The right of election is vested in the resident freemen, the #10 householders, freeholders, and in #20 and #10 leaseholders for the respective terms of 14 and 20 years ; the 40s. freeholders retain the privilege only for life. The number of registered electors, according to the town-clerk's return to parliament on the 24th of Feb., 1836, was 1630, of which 646 were freemen, 885 #10 householders, 76 freeholders, and 23 lease-holders ; but in consequence of many being registered in more than one capacity, the number polling at an election seldom exceeds 1150 : the sheriffs are the re-turning officers. The corporation hold a court of re-cord before the mayor and recorder, or their deputy, on Monday and Friday in every week, or as often as may be thought necessary, for the determination of all pleas arising within the city and county of the city to any amount ; a civil bill court, for the summary recovery of debts exceeding 40s. and not exceeding #10, in the first weeks respectively after the 6th of January, Easter, the 7th of July, and 29th of September ; a court of con-science before the ex-mayor, who presides in it for one year after the expiration of his mayoralty, for the re-covery of debts under 40s. ; and a court in which the mayor is sole judge, held for the decision of all claims for wages to the amount of #3 by in-door servants, and of #6 by out-door servants ; but these cases are frequently referred to the petty sessions. The assizes for the county are held here twice in the year, the mayor being always joined in the commission. The quarter sessions for the county of the city are held usually about 15 times in the year, before four of the senior aldermen, among whom the mayor and recorder are always included. The charter also granted the corpo-ration a court leet, with view of frankpledge, to be held twice in the year, and a court of admiralty ; but neither is now held. The town-hall is a handsome building, recently erected in the Mall, contiguous to the bishop's palace : the front, which is of stone, is of elegant sim-plicity of design and of just proportion ; the principal eint.rance leads into the public hall, which was formerly resorted to by the merchants as an exchange. The court-house and the city and county gaols occupy a con-siderable space of ground near the spot where St. Pa-trick's gate formerly stood, and are handsomely fronted with granite. The court-house, which is in the centre, was designed and executed by the late James Gandon, Esq., on the recommendation of Howard, the philan-thropist ; the entrance leads into a hall, from which are seen the interiors of the city and county courts, which are well arranged and lighted, but on a scale too confined to afford suitable accommodation to the pub-lie. The gaols, though of modern erection, are not well adapted for general classification ; the city gaol com-prises 14 cells, and the county gaol has a sufficient number of cells, with day-rooms and airing-yards (in one of which is a treadmill), to receive the average number of prisoners usually committed. The prisoners are clothed and employed in various kinds of work, and the females are under the superintendence of a matron. The penitentiary, or house of correction, built in the south-western suburbs in 1820, at an expense of #4990, occupies a spacious quadrangular area enclosed with a wall ; at one extremity is the governor's house, round which are ranged the various cells in a semicircu-lar form ; behind the cells are gardens and ground in which the prisoners are regularly employed ; there are in all 41 cells, with day-rooms and airing-yards, in one of which is a treadmill, adapted to four distinct classes ; the whole prison is under a regular system of discipline and employment, and a school is maintained for the instruction of male prisoners.
Waterford city and county (Part 2)
The city is the seat of a diocese, founded originally about the close of the 11th century by the Ostmen of Waterford, soon after their conversion to Christianity ; for which purpose they chose Malchus, who had been a Benedictine monk of Win-chester, and sent him to England to be consecrated by Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury. Malchus entered upon his episcopal office in 1096, and died in 1110 ; of his two immediate successors, nothing worthy of notice occurs ; after the distribution of the four palls by Car dinal Paparo, Augustine, the third in succession, was appointed bishop in a council at Windsor, in 1175, and sent by the king to Ireland, to be consecrated by his proper metropolitan, Donat, Archbishop of Cashel. David, the second in succession to Augustine, was con-secrated in 1204, and, in addition to his own, seized the temporalities of the adjoining see of' Lismore, but was assassinated in 1209 ; and Robert, who succeeded to the prelacy in 1210, pursuing the same policy as his prede-cessor, laid the foundation of continual feuds between the two sees, which were carried on with fierce and rancorous hostility. Stephen of Fulburn, who was consecrated in 1273, was, in the following year, made treasurer and afterwards Lord Justice of Ireland, dur-ing which time he caused a new kind of money to be coined ; and during the prelacy of Thomas Le Reve, who succeeded in 1363, the sees of Lismore and Water-ford were consolidated by Pope Urban V., and this union, which had been long contemplated and fre-quently attempted without success, was confirmed by Edw. III. Hugh Gore, who was consecrated Bishop of the united sees in 1666, expended large sums in repair-ing and beautifying the cathedral, and bequeathed #300 for bells for the churches of Lismore and Clonmel, and #1200 for the erection and endowment of an almshouse for ten clergymen's widows, to each of whom he assigned #10 per annum. Nathaniel Foy, who was made bishop in 1691, greatly improved the episcopal palace, and be-queathed funds for the erection and endowment of a school for 50 children, afterwards extended to 75, and for the improvement of the estates, the surplus funds to be applied to clothing and apprenticing the scholars. The two sees continued to be held together till the pass-ing of the Church Temporalities Act in the 3rd and 4th of Wm. IV., when, on the decease of Dr. Bourke, both were annexed to the archiepiscopal see of Cashel, and the temporalities became vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The diocese is one of the eleven that constitute the ecclesiastical province of Cashel, and comprehends the eastern portion of the county of Waterford ; it is 13 miles in length and 9 in breadth, comprising an estimated superficies of 31,300 acres. The lands belonging to the see comprise 8000 acres ; and the gross revenue of the united sees, on an average of three years ending Dec. 31st, 1831, amounted to #4323. 7. 1. The chapter consists of a dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, and archdeacon, who has no vote. Formerly there were the prebendaries of Kilcornan, Rossduffe, Corbally, and St. Patrick's, Waterford, and four chaplains ; and about the beginning of the 13th century, King John endowed the cathedral with lands to the value of 400 marks, for the support of 12 canons and 12 vicars ; but the estates were so wasted in the different wars, that the four great dignitaries had not suffcient to maintain them in comparative decency ; and Edw. IV., on their petition to that effect, granted them a mortmain licence to purchase lands of the yearly value of 100 marks. The Economy Fund, in 1616, amount-ed to 100 marks ; at present it is #144 per annum, a sum very insufficient for the repairs of the cathedral and the payment of the salaries of the choir and other officers of the cathedral. The consistorial court con-sists of a vicar-general, surrogate, registrar and deputy-registrar, apparitor, a proctor of office, and two other proctors. The diocese contains 34 parishes, comprised in 13 benefices, of which 11 are unions of two or more parishes, and two single parishes ; of these, 4 are in the patronage of the Crown, 8 in that of the Bishop, aind the remaining one wholly impropriate ; the total num-ber of churches is 8, and of glebe-houses, 7.
The Cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Trinity and com-monly called Christ-Church, was originally built by the Ostmen of Waterford, in 1096, and the ancient edifice was standing till 1773. It was a venerable structure, with the parish church of the Holy Trinity and the chapel of St. Nicholas, which was used as a vestry, at the east end, and having also two other chapels, one on the south and the other on the north side, the former of which was used for a consistory court. The present church, which is also parochial, was erected under the authority of a committee appointed by the corporation, and superin-tended by the dean and chapter, at the expense of #5397, defrayed by a grant from the corporation, the tithes of Cahir bequeathed by Bishop Gore for the repairs of churches in this diocese and in that of Lismore, the produce of the sale of pews, and private subscription. It is a handsome structure, partly built with the materials of the old church, in the modern style of architecture, with a lofty aind much ornamented steeple rising from the west end ; the whole length is 170 feet, and its breadth 58 feet ; the western entrance has on one side the consistorial court, and on the other the vestry, and above these are apartments for a library ; between the entrance and the body of the church is a spacious vestibule, in which are preserved some of the monuments that were erected in the old cathedral ; that portion of the building which may be called the church is 90 feet long and 40 feet high, and consists of a nave and aisles, separated by ranges of columns sup-porting galleries. In 1815, an accidental fire materially injured the building and destroyed the organ, but it was restored in 1818 at a very great expense, towards which #2000 was granted by the Board of First Fruits. Among the monuments in the vestibule are one to the Fitzgerald family, erected in 1770 ; a very neat monu-ment to Mrs. Susannah Mason, erected in 1752 ; and one to Bishop Foy: among those of more modern erection is a tablet to the memory of Bishop Stock, who died in 1813. In the churchyard are two remark-ably ancient monuments, one to James Rice, mayor in 1469 ; the other bearing the figure of a man in armour, but without date or inscription. James Rice, about the year 1482, built a chapel 22 feet square against the north side of the cathedral, and dedicated it to St. James the Elder and St. Catherine ; this, with another chapel to the east of it, and the chapter-house, was taken down about 50 years since, in order to enlarge the churchyard. The Bishop's palace is situated on the south side of the open space that surrounds the cathedral, and is a handsome building of hewn stone ; the front towards the Mall is ornamented with a fine Doric portico and enriched cornice ; the other, facing the churchyard, has the doorway, window cases, and quoins in rustic work. The Deanery-house, and also a building for the accommodation of clergymen's widows, called the Widows' Apartments, are situated in the same space.
In the R. C. divisions the united sees form one of the seven bishopricks suifragan to the archiepiscopal see of Cashel ; they comprise 35 parochial benefices or unions, and contain 78 chapels, served by 89 clergy-men, of whom, including the bishop, 35 are parish priests, and 54 coadjutors or curates. The parochial benefices of the bishop are Trinity Within and St. John's, in the former of which are the cathedral and the bishop's residence.
The county of the city, from the peculiar situa-tion of the town on the northern confines of the county of Waterford, is made to include a portion of land on the north of the river Suir, which formerly belonged to the county of Kilkenny ; and by the charter of Chas. I. comprises the great port and river up to Carrick, that part of the county of Kilkenny which is contained in the parish of Kilculliheen, all the lands on the opposite bank of the river in the parishes of Kilbar-ry and Killoteran, and the town of' Passage ; compre-hending together, according to the Ordnance survey, 9683 statute acres, of which about 882 acres are occupied by the city and suburbs ; the amount of Grand Jury cess, in 1835, was #4928. 9. 7? .The rural districts present no peculiarity of character ; the northern part chiefly consists of high grounds, commanding fine views of the city ; and on the opposite side, especially on the banks of the river above the city, are some elevated lands, except near the course of John's river, where there is an extensive level of marshy land. The pre-vailing substratum is argillaceous schistus, with silicious breccia near the summits of the hills, overwhich red sand-stone frequently occurs ; sienite and hornblende are found at Kilronan, talcous slate near Knockhouse, lydian stone on the road to Annestown ; horustone and jasper, alternating with flinty slate, in the same neigh-bourhood ; and serpentine, resting on a blueish black quartzose rock, at Knockhouse. The face of Bilberry rock, over the river Suir, above the city, presents a very in-teresting section,in which, in addition to the above-named minerals, are veins of quartz, comprising a considerable quantity of micaceous iron ore and scalygraphite, both passing into oxyde of iron and jasper, and in some places forming, with the quartz, a beautiful jaspery iron-stone ; brown crystallised quartz, with minute crystals of chlo-rite ; red ochre in abundance, sulphate of barytes, oxyde of titanium, bituminous shale, talcous slate, and arse-nieuratc of iron, The principal gentlemen's seats in the vicinity are New Park, the residence of the Rt. Hon. Sir John Newport, Bart., who represented this city in parliament for a series of years ; Belmont House, of Henry Winston Barron, Esq. ; Mullinabro', of J. Haw-trey Jones, Esq. ; May Park, of G. Meara, Esq. ; Bel-mont, of I. Roberts, Esq. ; Mount Pleasant, of S. King, Esq. ; Ballinamona, of T. Carew, Esq. ; Killaspy, of Alex. Sherlock, Esq. ; Bellevue, of P. Power, Esq. ; Bishop's Hall, of S. Blackmore, Esq. ; Faithlegg House, of N. Power, Esq. ; Woodstown, of Lord Carew ; Woodstown, of the Earl of Huntingdon ; Summerfield, of Lord Ebrington ; Harbour View, of Capt. Morris ; Dromona, of T. Coghlan, Esq. ; Grantstown, of the Rev. Fras. Reynett ; Blenheim Lodge, of Pierce Sweetman, Esq. ; and the residences of J. Stephens and M. Dobbyn, Esqrs., at Ballycanvin.
The county of the city comprises the parishes of Trinity Within, Trinity Without, St. Michael, St. Olave, St. Peter, St. Stephen, St. Patrick, St. John Within, St. John Without, Killoteran, Kilbarry, and Kilculliheen ; the three last are entirely rural, and are described under their own heads.. They are all in the diocese of Water-f'ord, and province of Cashel, except the last, which is in the diocese of Ossory, and province of Dublin, The parishes of Trinity Within and Without (otherwise called the Holy and Undivided Trinity) form a curacy, which, with those of St. Michael and St. Olave, together com-prising two-thirds of the city, are united to the entire rectory of' Kilcarragh and part. of that of Kilburne, and to part of the rectories of Kilmeaden and Reisk, together constituting the corps of t.he deanery of Waterford, in the patronage of the Crown. Trinity, St.Michael's, and St. Ohave's parishes pay minister's money. The gross annual income of the deanery amounts to #1044. 8. 9., including one-third share of the corporate revenue of the dean and chapter, amounting to #145. 4. 2. There are two glebes in the union, one of 17 acres in Kilcar-ragh, and another of 317 acres in Kilburne. There are, exclusively of the cathedral church, which is also paro-chial, churches in the parishes of St. Olave and Killo-teran, which latter rectory is usually held with the deanery by a separate title. St. Olave's church was rebuilt and consecrated by Dr. Milles, bishop of Waterford and Lismore, in 1734, a memorial of which is preserved on a brass plate in the western wall of thc building ; the pulpit, and the bishop's throne, which is in the church, are of very beautiful oak handsomely carved ; divine service is performed here twice every day ; and a lecturer, who is also master of the endowed school, receives #100 per ann. from the corporation, as trustees of a bequest by Bishop Milles, for the endow-ment of lectureships at St. Olave's and St. Patrick's. The parishes of St. Patrick, St. Peter, and St. Stephen, of which the livings are curacies, are united to the vicar-ages of St. John Within and Without, together com-prising one-third of the city, and constituting the corps of the archdeaconry of Waterford, in the patronage of the Bishop: the income is derivable from minister's money. The church of St. Patrick, the only one in the union, is a plain neat building, situated on elevated ground to the west of the city: the Ecclesiastical Com-missioners have recently granted #576 for its repair. The churches of St. John, St. Stephen, St. Peter, and St. Michael long since fell to ruins. There are four R. C. chapels, of which the principal, situated in Barron--Strand-Street, was erected in 1793, on ground given by the corporation, nearly opposite a former chapel, which had been built about a hundred years previously, and was the first ever erected in the city ; it is a very large building, and was erected at an expense of #20,000, raised chiefly by collections of pence at the chapel doors: the front, which will be of the Ionic order, is not yet completed ; the interior is remarkable for the lightness and elegance of its style ; the spacious roof is supported on ranges of columns of the Corin-thian order ; a considerable addition is at present being made to it. In this chapel are preserved and used, on the day before Easter-Sunday, some rich dresses sup-posed to have been presented by Pope Innocent III. to the cathedral of Waterford ; the plate also is of the most rich and valuable kind. There are two tablets in the interior, to the memory of Dr. Power and the late Dr. Patrick Kelly, and one on the exterior wall of the chapel to the memory of Dr. Hussey, all R. C. bishops of Waterford. There are places of worship for Bap-tists, the Society of Friends, Independents, Methodists, and Presbyterians.
The Blue-Coat school was founded for the gra-tuitous instruction of boys by Bishop Foy, who died in 1707 ; after appropriating several legacies, among which was one of #20 to the poor of Waterford, and another of as much of the sum of #800 expended on the episcopal palace, as might be recovered from his successor in the see, for apprenticing Protestant children, the bishop bequeathed the remainder of his property for the establishment of a school for the gra-tuitous instruction of Protestant children in reading, writing, and the principles of the Protestant religion. He fixed the number of children at 50, and the salary of the master at #40, and that of the catechist at #10, with liberty to increase the number of children and the amount of salary in equal proportion: the appointment of the master and catechist is vested in the Bishop of Waterford ; that of the children in the mayor, three of the aldermen, and the sheriffs, subject to the approval of the bishop. The executors erected a handsome school-house at the corner of Barron-Strand-street, on land granted them by the corporation, and with the re-mainder of the funds purchased lands then of the yearly value of #191. 2. 2. ; the endowment was, on the death of the bishop's sister, augmented with #48 per annum ; the number of boys was increased to 75, and the salary of the master to #60, and that of the catechist to #15. An act of parliament was subsequently obtained by the Rev. Nathaniel France, the only surviving executor, for perpetuating and regulating the charity, and the endow-ment was vested in him for life, arid after his decease in the bishop, dean, and mayor of Waterford for the time being ; the act also provided that the excess of income, after payment of the salaries, #5 to a collector, and the expenses of keeping the school-house in repair, should be applied to the clothing of the children, and if any surplus remained, to apprenticing the boys. In 1808 another act was obtained, by which the trustees were enabled to sell the school-house in Barron-Strand-street and to erect another on a more convenient site, and to raise the salary of the master to #100 and that of the usher to #50. The funds having increased by the determination of leases and the accumulation of savings to the amount of #4900, the trustees resolved to board and lodge the masters, children, and servants of the institution in the school-house. The school was soon afterwards established on the lands of Grantstown, in the vicinity, in a recently erected house which, by numerous additions to the original building, has been rendered sufficiently commodious for the purpose. The estates of the charity consist of 1400 acres of land, with two or three small plots of ground in the city. The Blue- Coat school for girls was erected in 1740, at an expense of #750, by Mrs. Mary Mason: it is a plain building, with the arms of the Mason family in front, and was originally designed for clothing and in-structing 30 girls till of age to be put out to service, the expense being defrayed by an annuity of #60 paid by the corporation, to whom the Mason family bequeathed #900 for that purpose. In 1784, Coun-sellor Alcock left #1000 to this charity, the interest of which sum is expended in apprenticing the most deserving of the children. An endowed school in the parish of St. Olave is under the patronage of the cor-poration, who give a school-house and residence for the master, who is also lecturer of St. Olave's, and receives from the corporation for both appointments a sal-ary of #100 per annum. A school at Newtown, near the city, was established in 1798, for the education of children belonging to the Society of Friends of the pro-vince of Munster ; the average number of both sexes is about 50, and the usual course of instruction compre-hends an English education, with the Latin and French languages. The school-house is large and commodious ; there is an extensive playground, and the premises are well adapted to the purpose. The national school in St. Patrick's contains in one establishment 150 boys, and in another from 90 to 100 girls, and is supported by subscription, aided by a grant of #12 per ann. to the boys' and of #10 to the girls' school ; there are also several Sunday schools in connection with the Kildare-place Society. There are numerous R. C. schools, of which the principal is the college of St. John, in Manor-street, erected by the Rt. Rev. Dr. Power, for the edu-cation of young men for the R. C. ministry ; attached to it is a lay school for boarders and day scholars. The build-ing is plain but spacious and commodious, and adjoin-ing it are extensive gardens and pleasure grounds. The greater number of the R. C. clergy of the united dioceses of Waterford and Lismore go through their courses of hu-manity and theology here, previously to entering Maynooth ; several complete the whole course of their studies in this establishment, Of the other schools, the princi-pal are those established in 1803, by the Rev. Edmund Rice, in connection with the society called the order of the Christian Brethren, and in which are generally from 600 to 700 boys, who are taught chiefly by young men who, from religious motives, have devoted themselves to the instruction of the poor without receiving any pecu-niary remuneration. The principal female school is conducted by the Sisters of the Presentation Convent, who gratuitously instruct about 400 girls. A school, also for the gratuitous instruction of poor females, has been established near the Ursuline convent on the road to Tramore.
A neat range of houses with two returns, facing the grand entrance of the cathedral church, and called the Widows' Apartments, was, according to the inscription on a marble tablet over the central house, founded by the Right Rev. Dr. Hugh Gore, for the use of clergymen's widows, and erected, in 1702, by Sir John Mason, Knt., surviving executor of his lordship. By this will #1200 was bequeathed for building an asylum and purchasing lands for the maintenance of ten poor clergymen's widows, to each of whom he assigned #10 per annum. Connected with the meeting-house of the Society of Friends is a house of refuge for aged and reduced mem-bers of that body. The leper hospital was founded about the year 1211 or 1212, by King John, who incor-porated it under the designation of the master, brethren and sisters of the leper-house of St. Stephen, and granted the society a common seal ; he also endowed it with the house and several other buildings in St. Stephen's parish, and with the oblations and offerings of that parish, with lands at Poleberry without St. John's gate, and with the lands of Leperstown, in the barony of Gualtier, containing 500 plantation acres ; also with the tithes of Carrigbrahan. The Poers, Lords of Car-raghmore, endowed an hospital adjoining the leper-house, which circumstance has led to an erroneous opinion that the Poers were either the original founders of the leper-house of St. Stephen, or that they endowed at least one ward in that establishment. In the middle of the last century, when leprosy had become of very rare occurrence, the corporation shut up the house ; but legal proceedings being instituted against them by the Rev. Dr. Downes, a decree was obtained for appropriat-ing the funds of the charity to the relief of the sick and maimed poor. Under this decree an infirmary was built for the reception of 50 indigent patients, and the funds af'terwards increasing, a magnificent hos-pital was erected in the suburbs, capable of receiving more than 400 patients, but the average number sel-dom exceeds 40. The government is vested in a mas-ter, appointed by the corporation ; and the medical attendants, housekeeper, and inferior servants are ap-pointed by the master, subject to the approval of the cor-poration. The rent-roll of the estates is about #1300, but the actual receipts are only about #1000 per annum ; and the annual expenditure, including the salaries of physician, surgeon, and others, nearly approaches that sum. The Holy Ghost hospital was originally a monastery of Friars Minor, founded in 1240 by Sir Hugh Pur-cell ; after the settlement of the French Huguenots in this city, a part of the building was appropriated to their use as a place of worship, and still bears the name of the French Church ; the steeple is yet entire ; and in the vaults beneath are several curious monuments, but the inscriptions are now illegible ; among these is the tombstone of Sir Patrick O'Neill, a colonel in the army of Jas. II., who served in the battle of the Boyne, and dying of his wounds, was buried in this church. At the Reformation, Henry Walsh purchased the site and all the possessions of this dissolved monastery, for the sum of #150. 13. 4., and founded the present hospital for a master, brethren, and the poor, to whom he gave it in trust at a rent of only 8s. The brethren were incorporated by an act of the 36th of Hen. VIII., providing that the master and his successors should be appointed by the heirs of Pa-trick Walsh, Esq., who should nominate three or four secular priests to celebrate divine service in the hospital, and have the nomination of at least 60 of the sick, infirm and impotent folk of -both sexes ; that all persons thus nominated should be a corporation for ever, with power to possess lands of the value of #100. This patent was confirmed by Elizabeth, in the 24th of her reign ; over the entrance of the hospital is a tablet re-cording its foundation in 1545, and its repair and enlargement in 1741 and 1743. The master has for several years been appointed by the corporation, in concurrence with the descendants of the Walsh family, who reside at Cratava, one of the Canary islands ; the inmates are at present all women and of the R. C. religion. The build-inghas a modern front erected against the ancient monas-tery, and on each side of the entrance is a flight of steps leading to the apartments, which are over the cemetery, and consist of a long narrow room or gallery lighted from above, and partitioned off for beds on one side throughout the whole length ; and an inner chamber, forming the whole of one wing: these rooms are terminated by the upper portions of two pointed arches, and contain some curious ancient sculpture and a font. The other wing of the hospital contains the chapel, a long gallery like the former, with an altar decorated with some curious ancient sculptured figures: divine service is regularly performed here, in compliance with the direction of the founder : there are at present 50 females in the institution. The property of the hospital consists of several houses and plots of ground in Fac-tory-lane, the Mall, Colebeck-street, the Quay, and Lombard-street ; the lands of Priors Knock, in the liberties of Waterford, containing 31 acres ; certain tithes of the parish of Kilmocahill, in the county of Kil-kenny ; the tithes of Kilmaguage, in the county of Wa-terford ; and a house and garden in Broad-street, Bristol, now the White Lion Inn, which, though a valuable pro-perty, produces only a rent of #6. 10., having been let on lease in the reign of Elizabeth, renewable for ever, and for the renewal of which it does not appear that any fine has been exacted. The present income from all these sources does not exceed #385.
The Fever Hospital was established in 1799 and was the first institution of the kind in Ireland, and the second in the united empire : it arose from very small begin-nings, but progressively increased, and the present building is capable of admitting 150 patients, for whose accommodation it possesses every requisite convenience : there are two attending physicians, with salaries of #40 each, and one resident apothecary, with a salary of #84 ; it is supported by subscription and local assessments. A Dispensary, established in 1786, is sup-ported by subscription and city and Grand Jury pre-sentments ; about 5500 patients are annually relieved at the trifling expense of about #250. A Lying-in Charity has been established, but its funds are not extensive and its usefulness is consequently limit-ed. There are almshouses for Roman Catholics. A Charitable Loan Fund was established by Archdeacon Fleury and Mr. Hobbs, in 1768, since which period more than #33,000 has been lent to more than 14,000 persons, free of interest ; but its funds are at present very limited. The House of Industry, with which is connected a Lunatic Asylum, was erected in 1779, at an expense of #1500, and is under the direction of a general board of governors, incorporated by acts of the 11th and 12th of Geo. III., under the title of "the President and Assistants instituted for the relief of the poor, and for punishing vagabonds and sturdy beggars for the county and county of the city of Waterford." A general meeting of the governors is held on the first Thursday in every month, and oftener if neces-sary ; subordinate to which is a regulating committee of ten governors, or members of the corporation, ap-pointed for one year, who meet weekly, and to whom is confided the whole management. Two physicians and a Protestant and a R. C. clergyman attend gratuitously, and there are a stipendiary apothecary, a superintendent, and two housekeepers. On an average, from 200 to 300 persons are annually received into the house ; they are generally employed in domestic offices and in various trades ; there is a school for the instruction of females. The income of the institution, amounting on an average to #3000 per ann., is derived from local assessments, donations, and subscription. There are two associations for the relief of destitute orphan chil-dren, one for Protestants, and one for Roman Catho-lics. The Protestant orphan house was established in 1818, and a school-house for 40 children was subse-quently erected ; it is situated within a quarter of a mile of the city, at a place called Gaul's Rock, on ground presented by John Fitzgerald, Esq. ; the late Sir Fran-cis Hassard gave #100 towards its support ; there are at present only 28 children in the house. A Mendicity Society was established in 1820, since which period the number of beggars with which the streets of the city were infested has been very much reduced.
Of the ancient walls of the city, which appear to have enclosed a triangular area of about 15 acres, with a tower at each angle, there are still some interesting remains ; they were extended in the reign of Hen. II. by a considerable sweep towards the west, and their circuit was farther enlarged in that of Hen. VII., when they were repaired. Of the original towers, the only one perfect is Reginald's tower, in old documents frequently called Reynold's tower and the King's tower : it was rebuilt in its original style in 1819, and is now appropriated by the corporation as a barrack for the police establishment. St. Martin's Castle, which was situated at the western angle of the city walls, has been partly preserved by its connection with a private dwell-ing-house, long called "the Castle." On the land side the city had five gates, of which St. John's was for a long 'time used as a county prison. There were also, in addition to the regular fortifications of the city, several private fortresses, called by the names of their respective proprietors, and supposed to have been not less than 20 in number. In Colbeck castle, from which that street took its name, was the Chamber of Green Cloth, or Chamber of Waterford, sometimes used by the mayor as a place of confinement for refractory citizens ; and a few years since there were several Danish semilunar towers on the walls, of which only one is now remaining at the extremity of what are called the ramparts. The palace in which King John resided. during his stay at Waterford, occupied the site on which the Widows' Apartments were built, and on the erection of which the vaults and foundations of that ancient structure were discovered. The most ancient of the religious houses was the priory of St. Catherine, founded by the Ostmen for canons of the order of St. Augustine and of the congregation of St. Victor : its endowment and posses-sions were confirmed by Pope Innocent III., in 1211 ; from the terms of that confirmation it appears to have been insulated at that time ; in the 31st of Elizabeth, its revenues were granted on lease to Elizabeth Butler, otherwise Sherlock. The ancient abbey was situated to the south-west of the city, adjoining Lombard's marsh, and a great part of the building remained in tolerable preservation till a few years since, when it was levelled to open a way to the bridge then built over John's river ; a vaulted room and a small portion of the foundations are all that now remain. The priory of St. John the Evangelist was founded in the suburbs, in 1183, by John, Earl of Morton, afterwards King of England, for monks of the order of St. Benedict, and made a cell to the abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul, in the city of Bath. This establishment received many grants and charters from successive English monarchs, and at the close of the 15th century had vast pos-sessions and enjoyed ample privileges, among which was the right of holding a court baron within the parish of St. John. The manor of St. John, now the property of Thomas Wyse, Esq., was for a long period held under the priors of that house by his ancestors : at the disso-lution, in 1537, it continued in the possession of the family, and was subsequently confirmed in capite at two knights' fees, with all tithes, privileges, royalties, and immunities, by royal charter, to Sir William Wyse, then chamberlain to Hen. VIII., which grant was more fully confirmed by patent in the 15th of Elizabeth. A monastery for Dominican or Black Friars, called also Friars Preachers, who were introduced into Ireland in 1226, was founded by the citizens, who for that purpose applied to Hen. III. for liberty to erect their house on a piece of ground adjoining Arundel's castle, and on which stood the ruins of an ancient tower. This establishment continued to flourish under the patronage of several monarchs, and at the dissolution the buildings, which were very extensive, but in a ruinous condition, were granted in capite, with some parcels of land, to James White, at an annual rent of 4s. The only existing remains are the chancel of the church and the belfry : the entrance to the former is through an arched door-way, highly ornamented with rope mouldings and sur-mounted by a spacious window ; the interior consists of two apartments, which are low and gloomy, with vaulted roofs supported on groined arches ; the belfry is a lofty square tower of massive thickness, having a staircase leading to the summit, from which is obtained an inte-resting view, especially over the old portion of the city. A monastery for Franciscan Friars, or Friars minor, was founded in 1240 by Sir Hugh Purcell ; at the dissolu-tion it was purchased by Henry Walsh, who established on its site the hospital of the Holy Ghost, before noticed. There are remains of two houses of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, situated respectively at Killure and Kilbarry, near which last is also a cromlech. In Arun-del-square was anciently a college of Jesuits, of which there are still some small remains, Of the old parish churches, the only one of which any part remains is that of St. Thomas, supposed to have been erected by Hen. II., or by his son and successor, King John, and which was dedicated to St. Thomas a Beckett : part of the entrance is still entire, and displays a beautiful specimen of Norman architecture. In Her Majesty's State Paper Office is lodged a curious manuscript his-tory, in verse, of the municipality of Waterford, supposed to have been written in the time of Hen. VIII., and of which a printed version is given in Ryland's History of Waterford. Among eminent natives may be noticed Gotofield, a learned Dominican friar of the 13th century; William of Waterford, author of a polemical work, pub-lished in 1433 ; Peter White, a celebrated classical teacher, and author of several publications, in the reign of Eliza-beth ; Nicholas Quemerford, D. D., cotemporary with the above, and author of "Answers to certain Questions pro-pounded by the citizens of Waterford," and other works; Peter Lumbard, R. C. Archbishop of Armagh, and a learned writer, who died in 1625 or 1626 ; Peter Wadding, a learned Jesuit, highly esteemed for his piety, who died in 1644 ; John Hartrey, a Cistertian monk, who wrote the history of his order in Ireland ; and Luke Wadding, a Franciscan friar, born in 1588, who also compiled the annals of his own order. Waterford gives the title of Marquess to the family of De la Poer Beres-ford.