|Accompanying Lewis map for Limerick city
Limerick city and county (Part 1)
LIMERICK, a city and county of itself, situated on the river Shannon, locally in the county of Limerick (of which it forms the capital), and in the province of MUNSTER, 51 miles (N.) from Cork, and 94 (S. W.) from Dublin ; containing, in 1821, 59,045, and in 1831, 66,554 inhabitants, of which num-ber, 44,100 are in the city Seal. and suburbs, and the re-mainder in the rural district. This ancient and im-portant city, supposed by some writers to have been the Regia of Ptolemy, is called Rosse-de-Nailleagh in the Annals of Multifernan ; and is believed to have been the place described under the name of Lumneach, as forming the western extremity of the southern half of the island as divided A. M. 2870 and 3970, which name appears to have been modified by the English into its present designation. St. Patrick is said to have visited it about the middle of the fifth century ; but the first authentic notices of Limerick repre-sent it as a Danish settlement. The place was first plundered by them in 812, and about the middle of the same century they made it one of their principal maritime stations, surrounding it with walls and towers which enclose the area now occupied by the English town. For nearly a century their power continued to increase, until Brien Boroimhe assumed the dominion of Munster and Thomond, when he expelled the Danes from Inniscat-tery, and reduced Limerick, allowing the inhabitants however to continue in it, subject to their own laws and customs, on payment of an annual tribute, said to have been fixed at 365 tuns or casks of wine of 32 gallons each. In 1064, Turlogh, King of Munster, received here the homage of Donsleibhe, King of Uhidia ; and his suc-cessor Murtogh, having given Cashel to the church, removed the seat of royalty to Limerick in 1106, from which time it continued to be the residence of the kings of Thomond, or North Munster, until its conquest by the English : from this circumstance, his successors were styled indiscriminately kings of North Munster or of Limerick. The Danes of Limerick did not embrace Christianity until the 11th century, and in the following they elected their first bishop. In 1153, Turlogh O'Conor, King of Connaught, besieged the city, and compelled the Dames to renounce the authority of Turlogh O'Brien, and drive him west of the Shannon.
A succession of intestine wars among the native princes was carried on until the handing of Hen. II., who soon after obtained possession of it and placed a garrison there ; but after his departure, Donald O'Brien, King of Thomond, regained possession of it. In 1175, Ray-mond he Gros, with the assistance of the King of Ossory, invested it, and by fording the river in the face of the enemy, so daunted them that he entered it without opposition, obtained a great booty, and secured it by a garrison ; but on the death of Earl Strongbow, it was again evacuated by the English and subsequently burned by order of Donald, who declared that it should no longer be a nest for foreigners. In 1179, Hen. II. gave the kingdom of Limerick to Herebert Fitz-Herebert, who having resigned his claim to an inheritance so uncertain, it was granted to Philip de Braosa, and he, aided by Milo de Cogan and Robert Fitz-Stephen, advanced against the city, which the garrison set on fire. This so dispirited Braosa, that he immediately re-treated, and so assured was Donald O'Brien afterwards of the security of his metropolis, that, in 1194, he found-ed the cathedral church of St. Mary, on the site of his palace. In 1195, the English appear to have regained possession of the city, for it was then governed by a provost ; but Mac Arthy of Desmond forced them once more to abandon it.
King John afterwards renewed the grant to Philip de Braosa, with the exception of the city of Limerick, the cantred of the Ostmen, and the Holy Island, which he committed to the custody of William de Burgo, who formed a settlement there which from that period set at defiance all the efforts of the Irish. A strong castle and bridge were erected ; and, encouraged by the privileges offered to them, English settlers flocked hither in great numbers, between whom and the inhabitants of the surrounding country amicable relations appear to to have been soon established, for, among the names of the chief magistrates for the ensuing century, besides those which appear to be English, Norman or Flemish, and Italian, there are several purely Irish. Money was coined here in the reign of John. In 1234, the city was taken, after a siege of four days, by Richard, Earl Marshal of England, then in rebellion ; and by the con-tinued wars in the surrounding country, especially among the O'Briens. De Burgos, De Clares, and Fitzgeralds, its progress in commercial prosperity appears to have been greatly checked. In 1308, Pierce Gaveston, the viceroy, passed through Limerick with an army, and compelled O'Brien to submit, but the tranquillity was of short duration. In 1314 De Clare burned the suburbs ; and in 1316, Edward Bruce terminated his career of conquest southward at this place, and kept his court here until the following Easter. The hostilities of the O'Briens and others of his allies, and the unbounded authority assumed by the Earl of Desmond and other Anglo-Norman leaders, rendered additional military de-fences necessary for the protection of the city, and various grants were made by Edw. II. for enclosing the suburbs with a stone wall, and for repairingthe castle. In 1331, the Earl of Desmond was committed to the custody of the Marshal of Limerick.
In 1337, a dispute arose between the merchants of Limerick and Galway, respecting tolls, which, notwith-standing the interference of the Lord-Justice, finally led to open hostilities. In 1340, Limerick was for a short period the head-quarters of Sir William Windsor, chief governor, when marching into the west against the O'Briens. During the whole of the fifteenth century, the fortifications, which, prior to the grants of Edw. II., had comprised only the part of the city insulated by the Shannon, and called the English town, were extended so as to include the portion on the southern bank of the river, called the Irish town, the defences of which were completed by the erection of St. John's gate and the neighbouring works, begun in 1450, but not finished until 1495. In the reign of Edw. IV., Connor O'Brien, prince of Thomond, drove the English from various parts of Munster, and compelled the citizens of Limerick to pay him an annual tribute of 60 marks. Another remarkable proof of the distracted state of the country is afforded by a statute of the 28th of Hen. VI., from which it appeared that, owing to the prevailing power of the "Irish enemy and English rebels," in the surround-ing country, the inhabitants were under the necessity of deriving their supply of provisions principally from France, which was sent only on condition of the ships being placed under the special protection of the King of England. In 1467, a mint was established in the city ; in 1484, Gerald, Earl of Kildare, held a parliament there ; and in 1495, the brotherhood of the guild of merchants was erected.
In the reign of Hen. VlI. the city recovered some degree of prosperity ; but in 1524 it was harassed by the open hostilities, both by sea and land, resulting from the commercial jealousies between it and Galway, until these were at length terminated by a formal treaty, and by an injunction from the King, in 1536, requiring a better demeanour from the men of Galway. In the reign of Hen.VIII., Alderman Sexton, of this city, took a distinguished part in favour of the British interest. In 1542, the proclamation declaring Hen. VIII. king of Ireland was received with demonstrations of the greatest joy, and in the following year Sir Anthony St. Leger held a parliament here, in which divers important acts were passed. Towards the close of Mary's reign, the Lord-Deputy Sussex arrived here to suppress a revolt of some inferior branches of the O'Brien family against their chief, on which occasion the Earl of Thomond and all the freeholders of his country swore fealty to the crown of England. During the entire reign of Elizabeth, and throughout the wars that devastated the whole sur-rounding province, Limerick maintained the most un-shaken loyalty, and was made a centre of civil and military administration. Sir Henry Sydney, Lord-Deputy, who visited it in 1567, in 1569, and in 1576, states that he was received here with greater magnificence than he had hitherto experienced in Ireland. At this period Limerick is described as a place well and sub-stantially built, with walls extending round a circuit of about three miles.
On the arrival of Sir William Pelham, Lord-Deputy, in 1579, the mayor appeared before him attended by 1000 citizens well armed ; and in 1584, the city militia amounted to 800 men, being double that of Cork, and a third more than that of Waterford, demonstrating that Limerick was then the most important city in the island next to Dublin. During the Earl of Desmond's rebel-lion, the city was for some time the head-quarters of the English army. From the commencement of the reign of Jas. I. until the war of 1641, it enjoyed undis-turbed tranquillity : and notwithstanding accidental con-flagrations, in 1618 and 1620, considerable improve-ment in the construction of buildings and public works took place. The customs' duties for the year ending Lady-day, 1633, amounted to no less a sum than #1619. 1. 7?. In 1636 it was visited by the Lord-Deputy Wentworth, who was splendidly entertained by the mayor for nine days, and on his departure presented to the corporation a valuable cup of silver gilt. On the approach of the insurgent army under Lord Ikerrin, Lord Muskerry, and General Barry, in 1642, the gates were thrown open by the citizens ; the royal garrison, consisting only of 200 men, who had shut themselves up in the castle, were compelled to surrender after an obstinate defence ; after which the magistrates sent repre-sentatives to the Catholic convention at Kilkenny, and made every exertion to repair and strengthen the for-tifications. In 1646, when it was attempted to pro-claim the pacification that had just been concluded between King Charles and the parliament, the attempt was met by violence ; and afterwards, the supreme council, headed by Rinuncini, the pope's nuncio, re-moved hither, to encourage the besiegers of the neigh-bouring castle of Bunratty, on the Clare side of the Shannon, in which the parliamentarians had placed a garrison. In 1650, the Marquess of Ormonde marched into the city, in the hope of securing it for the king ; but the nuncio's party having deprived him of all power, he at length quitted the kingdom, leaving the command of the royalist troops to the Earl of Castlehaven, who induced the magistrates to accept his offer to defend them against the threatened attack of Ireton. The latter, however, did not commence operations until the spring of 1651 ; and the siege being protracted until the approach of win-ter, famine, misery, and death made formidable ravages among the ranks of both parties. The attempts of the Irish forces to relieve the place were defeated, but a sally by O'Nial, who commanded the garrison, nearly proved fatal to the besiegers. The privations of the inhabitants at length compelled them to turn out all useless persons, who, to prevent them from communicating the plague, which then raged amongst them, to the parliamentarian forces, were, at the command of Ireton, immediately whipped back ; and dissensions gradually arose among the besieged, as to the propriety of capitulating. The re-sistance of the clergy to a surrender being at length overbalanced by some officers who took possession of one of the gates and turned the cannon against the city, the place was surrendered to the besiegers on condition that the garrison should march out unarmed, and the inhabitants be allowed time for removing, with their effects, to any place where they might be appointed to live. Twenty-four persons were excluded by name from the benefit of this treaty : the soldiers, who marched out to the number of 2500, were greatly reduced by disease contracted by the sufferings of a protracted siege of six months. After the surrender, the emblems of royalty were removed, the magistrates displaced, and for five years the city was subjected to a military government. In 1653 an act was passed permitting the English adven-turers, officers, and soldiers to purchase the forfeited houses at six years' purchase ; and a charter was granted conferring upon the citizens the same pri-vileges and franchises as those enjoyed by the city of Bristol. In 1656, the municipal government was restored, by the election of a mayor and twelve English aldermen.
At the Restoration, Sir Ralph Wilson, the governor, declared in favour of the King. He was shortly after suc-ceeded by the Earl of Orrery, who was instructed to endeavour to procure good merchants, English and Dutch, to inhabit the place, and cause it to flourish by trade. All the banished merchants were again restored to their freedom and privileges, on entering into recognizances for their peaceful demeanour ; and the inland trade in creased so rapidly that, in 1672, the tolls of the gates were let for upwards of #300 per annum. During a progress through Munster made by the Duke of Ormonde, lord-lieutenant, he was received at Limerick with great distinction, being attended by the principal nobility and gentry of the county, and the cavalry militia of each barony. The same year was remarkable for a great drought in the Shannon, insomuch that the mayor and citizens perambulated the English town, dryshod, out-side the walls ; and the following year a storm, with a high tide, did great damage.
The accession of Jas. II. caused an alteration in the religious ascendancy of the corporation ; and after the battle of the Boyne, the Earl of Tyrconnel esta-blished his viceregal court in the city. Soon after this it was invested by King William in person, at the head of 20,000 veterans. The siege, undertaken at a late period of the season, was rendered particularly harassing by the formidable obstacles opposed to the besiegers by the fortifications and natural defences of the town, the abundance of its munitions of war, and the circumstance of the flower of the Irish army being assembled in and around it, under Gen. Boiseleau, the Duke of Berwick, and other distinguished leaders, who were enabled to obtain supplies of every kind from Connaught, and by sea, where the French fleet rode undisturbed. The operations of the English army were also greatly checked by the loss of its battering train, which had been intercepted and des-troyed by Gen. Sarsfield, in a gallant attack, within twelve miles of William's camp. Nevertheless, a breach having been at length effected, the besiegers thrice pene-trated into the town, and as often were beaten back, until after a desperate contest of four hours, in which they lost 1700 men, they were obliged to retire ; William himself being compelled to raise the siege and withdraw towards Clonmel. But in the August following, Wil-liam's army, now commanded by General de Ginkell, again invested the town ; and the garrison having been abundantly supplied, and in expectation of succour from France, the siege was protracted and sanguinary. One of the most serious conflicts at this period was that in which 600 Irish were slain, 150 drowned, and above 100 taken prisoners, in the defence of Thomond bridge, the gates having been closed upon them too speedily, by which their retreat was cut off. Operations were at length terminated by the celebrated treaty of Limerick, ratified on Oct. 1st, and said to have been signed on a large stone near Thomond bridge, within sight of both armies. Two days after, the French fleet arrived on the coast, and on the 14th entered the Shannon, with a reinforce-ment of troops and 30,000 stand of arms and ammu-nition. Both parties now made strenuous exertions to retain the Irish soldiers in their service : 3000 were prevailed upon to enter into that of the victorious mo-narch ; but the remainder, amounting to upwards of 19,000 men, embarked for France, and formed the foun-dation of the Irish brigade, afterwards so celebrated in the wars of Europe.
After the embarkation of the Irish troops, the inha-bitants, who had been compelled by the bombardment to quit their dwellings, on their return found their ef-fects destroyed, and the entire city a scene of desolation and misery. While all classes were engaged in repairing their losses, the poorer by erecting small huts under the walls, the richer by re-edifying their houses, and the soldiers by restoring and enlarging the fortifica-tions, a new and unthought of casualty nearly in-volved the whole in a second destruction : one of the towers on the quay suddenly fell, and 250 barrels of gunpowder which it contained blew up with a tremen-dous explosion, by which 240 persons were crushed to death or dreadfully maimed, some being struck dead by stones which fell a mile from the town. For more than 60 years after the siege, the fortifications were kept in complete repair, a garrison and several companies of city militia maintained, and every precaution of an im-portant military station observed. In 1698, the Mar-quess of Winchester and the Earl of Galway, lords jus-tices, on a tour of inspection, visited the city, which in the same year suffered most severely by a storm and high tide. In 1703 an act was passed providing that no Roman Catholic strangers should reside in the city or suburbs, and that the present inhabitants of that persuasion should be expelled, unless they gave sufficient securities for their allegiance ; but in 1724 these res-trictions were removed. During the Scottish rebellion in 1745, similar precautions were used, but no symptom of disaffection was discovered. In 1751, a storm, ac-companied with high tides, overflowed a great part of the place, and did great damage. In 1760, Limerick was declared to be no longer a fortress, and the dis-mantling of its walls and other defences was immediately commenced and completed by slow degrees, as the extension of the various improvements rendered it necessary. On the breaking out of the American war, three Volunteer corps were formed under the name of the Limerick Union, the Loyal Limerick Volunteers, and the Limerick Volunteers.
After the termination of the American war the im-provement and extension of the city were renewed with unexampled spirit : and although contested elections and alarms of insurrection in the neighbouring districts at times disturbed its tranquillity, they never retarded its improvement. During the French invasion in 1798, the city militia distinguished itself by the stand it made at Collooney under Col. Vereker, who in consequence received the thanks of parliament. In 1803, a design was formed by those engaged in Emmett's conspiracy to take the city by surprise : and the plan was conducted with so much secrecy that it was unknown to the mili-tary commandant in Limerick until the evening pre-ceding the intended day of attack ; but the prompt and decisive measures adopted prevented the apprehended danger. In 1821, symptoms of insubordination in the liberties led to a proclamation declaring the county of the city to be in a state of disturbance, and to require an extraordinary establishment of police, which was ac-cordingly sent and is still maintained. In the winter of 1833 the city again suffered severely by storms and high tides.
The city, situated in an extensive plain watered by the Shannon, is composed of three portions, the English town, the Irish town, and Newtown-Pery. The first and oldest occupies the southern end of the King's Island, a tract formed by the Shannon, here divided into two streams, of which the narrowest and most rapid is called the Abbey river. This part, the houses of which are chiefly built in the Flemish fashion, is said to resemble the city of Rouen in Normandy : but, since the erection of the New town, it has been de-serted by the more wealthy inhabitants, and exhibits a dirty and neglected appearance. The Irish town is also very ancient, being allotted to the native inhabit-ants so early as the reign of King John : here the streets are wider and the houses more modern ; both these partswere strongly fortified. The suburb called Thomond gate, situated on the county of Clare side of the river, at the end of Thomond bridge, was formerly the only entrance to the ancient city, and was protected by a strong castle : it is now of considerable extent : close to the foot of the bridge is the stone on which the treaty of Limerick was signed. Newtown-Pery, built wholly within the last fifty years on elevated ground, parallel with the course of the river, below the union of its two branches, on a site, formerly called the South Prior's Land, which became the property of the Pery family about 1770, is one of the handsomest modern towns in Ireland : a very handsome square has been lately erected in it. There are six bridges ; Thomond bridge, lead-ing from King John's Castle in the English town to Thomond.gatc, on the county of Clare side, is the most ancient. It was built in 1210, and subsequently widened, and consists of 14 unequal arches, which were turned on wicker work, the marks of which are still apparent in the cement ; its roadway is perfectly level : it is now being taken down, and will be replaced by a new bridge (the foundation stone of which was laid in 1836, and which is to be opened in 1839), by the corporation, which has procured a loan of #9000 from the Board of Works to effect it : the estimated expense is #12;600. Wellesley bridge, erected in 1827, consisting of five large arid elegant elliptic arches, crosses the Shannon from the New town to the northern, or county of Clare, shore. Its roadway is level and its parapet is formed of a massive open balustrade ; on the city side is a swing bridge over a lock through which vessels pass to the upper basin and quays. The New bridge, crossing the Abbey river, and connecting the New town with the English town, was finished in 1792 at an expense of #1800 ; it consists of three irregular arches. Baal's bridge, higher up on the same branch of the river, is a beautiful structure of a single arch, built in 1831 to re-place an ancient bridge of the same name, which con-sisted of four arches with a range of houses on one of its sides. On the same branch of the Shannon is Park bridge, an old lofty structure of five irregular arches. Athlunkard bridge, consisting of five large elliptic arches, crosses the Shannon about a mile from the city ; it was erected in 1830 by means of a loan of #9000 from the Board of Public Works, #6000 from the consolidated fund, and a grant of #1000 from the Grand Jury of the county of Clare ; it forms a communication between Limerick and Killaloe. The environs, though flat, are generally very beautiful ; the soil extremely rich ; and the sinuous course of the Shannon, in many points of view, presents the appearance of a succession of lakes; but the landscape is deficient in wood. Of the four prin-cipal approaches, that from Clare, by Wellesley bridge, is the best ; the others are through lines of cabins, crooked and deficient in cleanliness. In the vicinity of the city are several good houses and neat villas, but by no means so numerous as its wealth would lead stran-gers to expect ; as the rich merchants chiefly reside in the Newtown. Among the seats in the neighbourhood, those most worthy of notice are Mount Shannon, that of the Earl of Clare, one of the finest mansions in the south of Ireland ; Hermitage, of Lord Massy, Clarina Park, of Lord Clarina ; and Doonass, on the opposite side of the Shannon, of Sir Hugh Dillon Massy, Bart. : in the city are the mansions of the Earl of Limerick and of the Bishop. The streets, which are spacious, in-tersect each other at right angles, and are occupied by elegant houses, splendid and well-stocked shops, and merchants' stores. Patrick-street, George-street, and the Crescent form a continuous line of elegant houses, extending about a mile from the New bridge. The total number of houses, in 1831, was 4862.
The city is lighted with gas under a contract made in 1824 with the United London Gas Company : the original engagement was confined to the New town, but it has been extended by the liberality of the corpora-tion to the Irish town and Dublin road, and by private subscriptions to part of the English town. Works for supplying it with water were commenced in 1834 by a London company ; the two tanks are about a mile from the city, at Cromwell's Fort, near Gallows' Green, on the site of two forts occupied by Cromwell and Wm. III.; their elevation is 50 feet above the highest part of the city, and 72 feet above the river, from which the water is raised through a metal pipe 12 inches in diameter by two steam-engines, each of 20-horse power. In excavating for a foundation for the tanks, several skeletons, cannon and musket balls, armour, and divers remains of military weapons were found ; and in forming the new line of road along the Shannon, on the county of Clare side, heaps of skeletons were found, some of which were 15 yards in length and 6 feet in depth ; they are supposed to be the remains of those who died in the great plague. In military arrangements, Limerick is the headquarters of the south-western district, which comprises the counties of Clare and Limerick, with the town of Mount-Shannon, in the county of Galway ; the county of Tipperary, except the barony of Lower Ormond, but including the town of Nenagh ; amid that part of the county of Kerry north of the Flesk. There are four barracks ; the Castle barrack in the English town for infantry, capable of accommodating 17 officers and 270 non-comnmissioned officers and privates, with an hospital for 29 patients ; the New barrack, on the outside of Newtown-Pery, adapted for 37 officers, 714 infantry and cavalry, and 54 horses, with an hospital for 60 patients ; the Artillery barrack, in the Irish town, for 6 officers, 194 men, and 104 horses, with an hospital for 35 patients ; and an Infantry bar-rack, in St. John's-square, for 4 officers and 107 men : a military prison, lately built in the new barrack, has 6 cells. There is also a city police barrack. The Lime-rick Institution, founded in 1809, and composed of shareholders and annual subscribers, has a library con-taining upwards of 2000 volumes. There are four news-papers, three published twice a week, and one weekly. An elegant theatre, erected some years ago by subscrip-tion, at a cost of #5000, was so inadequately supported that the building was at length sold to the Augustinian monks. The assembly-house, built in 1770, at an ex-pense of #4000, is not now used for its original purpose, the balls commonly taking place at Swinburne's hotel ; part of it is occasionally used for dramatic performances. The hanging gardens, constructed in 1808 by William Roche, Esq., M.P., at an expense of #15,000, form a singular ornament to the town ; they are raised on ranges of arches of various elevation, from 25 to 40 feet, the vaults thus formed being converted into store-houses for wine, spirits, and other goods, now occupied by Government, at a rent of #500 per annum. On this foundation are elevated terraces, the highest of which has a range of hothouses, with greenhouses at the angles. The facade of these gardens extends about 200 feet, and the top of the highest terrace, which is 70 feet above the street, commands a most extensive prospect of the city and the Shannon.
Considerable efforts for the encouragement of the linen and cotton manufactures were not long since made, but failed. The former branch of industry has of late greatly declined ; it had existed in the county for more than a century, and, by the exertions of the Chamber of Commerce, the weavers were enabled to manufacture that description of linen best adapted to command a sale ; a weekly market was formed ; and a linenhall was erected, in which markets were held every Friday and Saturday. Premiums were also given by the Cham-ber of Commerce, until this branch of their public exer-tions was undertaken by the Agricultural Association, a committee of which, united with the Trustees for the Promotion of Industry in the county, met for the pur-pose in the committee-room at the linenhall every Saturday. This united committee, besides annual sub-scriptions from its own body, which are applicable to all improvements in agriculture, has under its man-agement a fund of about #7000, allocated to the county by a Board of Directors in London, for the purpose of promoting the linen, woollen, cotton, and other trades among the poor. The glove trade, formerly of great celebrity, has declined considerably, most of the gloves sold under the name of Limerick being now manufac-tured in Cork. A manufactory was formed in 1829, at Mount Kennett, for tambour lace and running, better known by the name of Irish blonde, which is here brought to great perfection and gives employment to about 400 young females ; the wrought article is sent to London. A lace-factory, established in 1836, in Clare-street, by Win. Lloyd, Esq., employs 250 young females who are apprenticed to it : the produce is sent to London. A muslin-factory, in the Abbey parish, employs 100 boys as apprentices. The distillery of Stein, Browne and Co., at Thomond-gate, produces 455,000 gallons of whiskey annually. There are also seven breweries, each of which brews porter, ale, and beer to a total amount of 5000 barrels annually ; the consumption both of these and of the distillery is chiefly confined to the neighbourhood. There are several iron-foundries, cooperages, and comb-manufactories, but all on a small scale. In the liberties of the city are several extensive flour-mills, which grind upwards of 50,000 barrels of flour annually ; and not far from the town are two paper-mills and two bleach-greens. The supply of fuel is abundant, large quantities of coal being imported from England ; but turf, of which a very large supply is brought up and down the Shannon, is still the chief fuel of the lower classes, and is also much used in manufactories and in the kitchens of the higher ranks. An abundance of fish is procured by the exer-tions of the inhabitants towards the mouth of the river, and on the neighbouring coasts ; and besides a salmon fishery, leased by the corporation, trout, eels, perch, and pike, are taken in the river, and, lower down, all kinds of shell and flat fish. In the month of May, numerous temporary causeways are formed several yards into the river on each side, by the poor, on which they fish with nets for eel fry ; the quantities taken are so great that each individual fills a couple of washing tubs with them every tide. The corporation by their charter claim an exclusive right to all fishing from the city to Inniscattery island.
The trade of the port is comparatively of modern origin. The first return of the customs on record, made in 1277, gives an amount of #6. 18. In 1337 they were only 8 marks ; in 1495, #9. 0. 10. ; in 1521, #6. 7. 4. ; in 1537, #9. 8. 4?. ; and in 1607, when King James called for a return of the customs of all the ports in Ireland, those of Limerick are stated to be #15. 14. 8., while at Waterford they were #954. 18. 2.. and at Cork #255. 11. 7. But they increased rapidly during the reigns of Jas. I. and Chas. I. : in 1633 the customs had risen to #1619. 1. 7?. During the war of 1641 they diminished considerably, but after the Restoration again rose, insomuch that, in 1672, the customs were #1906. 19. 8., and the tolls at the city gates #310. 12. 4. In 1688, during the government of Lord Tyrconnel, they fell to #801. 3. 4. It was not till the middle of the last century that Limerick took a position among the principal commercial ports, and now it is a great place of export for the agricultural produce of the most fertile tracts in Ireland. From Kerry, Tipperary, Clare, and Limer-ick, are sent in corn, provisions, and butter, which are exported to London, Liverpool, Bristol, and Glas-gow. The exports for the year ending the 1st of Sep-tember, 1835, were, beef, 1364 tierces ; pork, 14,263 tierces and barrels ; butter, 72,630 firkins ; bacon, 81,839 cwts. ; lard, 9697 cwts. ; wheat, 117,874 barrels ; barley, 32,847 barrels ; oats, 285,623 barrels ; flour, 22,725 cwts.; oatmeal, 16,320 cwts.; eggs, 26,214 crates; besides hams, tongues, spirits, porter, ale, flax, linen, wool, feathers, and salmon, the estimated value of all which exceeded a million sterling. The chief imports are timber, coal, iron, flax-seed, tallow, pitch, tar, hoops, staves, wine, and fruit. The number of vessels entered inwards from foreign ports in 1835 was 51, of the aggregate burden of 12,408 tons of British shipping, and 3 of 698 tons of foreign. The number of vessels cleared outwards during the same period was 31, of the aggregate burden of 7980 tons. The number entered inwards coastways was 494, of 53,078 tons ; 44 of these were from Irish ports : the number cleared outwards was 561, of 62,349 tons, 43 of which were for Irish ports. On the 5th of Jan., 1836, there were 71 vessels of 5008 tons belonging to the port : the customs for the year ending on that day amounted to #142,843. 10., and for the subsequent year, to #146,222. 17. 9. The excise duties of the Limerick district, for 1835, were
#71,616. 6. 6?.
The situation of Limerick, about sixty Irish miles from the sea, and its extent of river navigation, render the port an object of peculiar importance ; but it labours under several disadvantages. For a great port, it is too high up the river : its navigation is obstructed and intricate, with insufficient water for large vessels in the higher parts of the channel ; no funds are applied to the maintenance of the navigation, which is almost entirely neglected : ships may discharge ballast in any part without restriction, and the proprietors of adjoining lands may create any obstructions they please. At each side of the narrow arm of the Shannon that encircles the English town are several quays accessible only to boats ; and at Merchants' Quay is the Long Dock, where the turf and fish boats unload. From the cus-tom-house, at the mouth of the Abbey river, various detached quays, erected by private individuals, extend along the united channel, but they are in a very bad condition ; the ground around them is rugged and hard, so that vessels lying there are frequently damaged. The water-bailiff receives dues to the amount of about #400 per ann, levied on all vessels arriving in the port ; and other dues, amounting to about #80 per annum, are received by the mayor on salt and coal imported. The Chamber of Commerce, consisting of opulent and most respectable merchants, has supreme interest in the navi-gation of the port, and from its funds has been defrayed the greater portion of the expense that has been incurred by whatever improvements have been made, although it has no right or control over the river. The commis-sioners appointed by act of parliament, in 1823, have power to levy certain taxes for the erection of the Wellesley bridge, and of docks to accommodate vessels frequenting the port : their revenue now averages #1500 per annum, and they have jurisdiction over the pilotage of the river. These commissioners have obtained from Government a loan of #55,384 under a mortgage of the tolls on exports and imports, tonnage, dock dues, &e. It was their intention to construct a floating dock, but the original plan has been abandoned, and an act has been recently obtained to carry into effect a design by Thos. Rhodes, Esq., who in 1833 was appointed by Government to survey the port, with a view to provide a safe harbour for shipping. His plan proposes, by con-structing a dam or weir across the river at Kelly's Quay, to convert that part of the river above into floating docks, which are to be formed by excavating and levelling the bed of the river along the present quay walls ; and a new line of quays is to be built, on which bonded warehouses, storehouses for grain, &c., may be erected. On the north side of the river is to be a dock-yard, with two slips or inclined planes, and a graving dock ; and on the south side, another graving dock. It is also proposed to form a line of embankments on each side of the river, for reclaiming considerable tracts of waste land, which might be drained, and the water discharged by tide sluices through the embankments. The total amount required to carry these plans into execution is estimated at #82,756. 10. No part of the work has been yet commenced ; but #40,000 has been granted, and the quays are already contracted for, to be finished in 1838 : they are to extend 3030 feet, from Kelly's Quay to the custom-house. A cut from the Abbey river continues the navigation, partly in the river and partly by an artificial canal for 15 miles, to Lough Derg, which was transferred by Government to a private association, called the Limerick Navigation Company, on their undertaking to expend #3000 in the rebuilding of Baal's bridge, which had previously interrupted the communication between the canal and the tide-water of the river, and still continues to do so in a great degree ; and about the same period a new and important impulse was given to the trade on the Shannon, by the establishment of the Inland Steam-navigation Company, by which a communication has been opened by steam with Kilrush and other places in the estuary of the Shannon, and by packet boats to Killaloc, whence there is a com-munication by steam through Lough Derg to Portumna, Banagher, and Athlone.
The hay and straw markets are held in two enclosures on Wednesday and Saturday ; the wheat market is large, and has sheds all round its enclosure ; the butter market, a spacious and lofty building, is open daily throughout the year. There are two potato markets, one in the Eng-lish, the other in the Irish town, where vast quantities are daily sold. There are also two meat markets, each plen-tifully supplied with butchers' meat and poultry ; but the supply of fish and vegetables is often deficient. The smaller of these markets, called the Northumberland buildings, has attached to it large apartments for public meetings, a bazaar, and commercial chambers ; there are four annual fairs, on Easter-Tuesday, July 4th, Aug. 4th, and Dec. 12th. To the August fair is attached a pri-vilege by virtue of which no person, for fifteen days after it, can be arrested in the city or liberties on pro-cess issuing out of the Tholsel court. The principal commercial edifices are the Custom-House and the Com-mercial-Buildings. The former, situated at the entrance of the New town from the old, was completed in 1769, at an expense of #8000, and consists of a centre and two wings, built with hewn stone and handsomely orna-mented : a surveyor's house and habitations for boatmen have been erected at the pool. The Commercial Build-ings were erected in 1806, at a cost of #8000, by a proprietary of 100 shareholders. They consist of a large and well-supplied news-room on the ground floor, above which is a library and apartments for the Cham ber of Commerce, which was incorporated in 1815, for the protection of the trade. Their fund arises from fees on the exports and imports of the members ; the surplus is employed in promoting the comnmercial in-terest of the city, improving the navigation, and aiding the manufactures. The post-office is a small building, in a situation so inconvenient that none of the coaches can approach it. The mails start for Dublin, Cork, Tralee, Waterford, and Galway.
The corporation exists both by prescription and charter, and its authority is confirmed and regulated by statute. The first documentary grant of municipal privileges was by John, Earl of Morton and Lord of Ire-land, in 1199, conferring the same liberties and free cus-toms as were enjoyed by the citizens of Dublin, which were secured and explained by a charter of the 20th of Edw. I. Charters confirming or extending these pri-vileges were granted in the 1st of Hen. IV., 1st of Hen. V., 8th of Hen. VI., 2nd of Hen.VII., 6th of Edw. VI., and 17th and 25th of Elizabeth : the former charter of this last-named sovereign granted, among other new privileges, that a sword of state and hat of maintenance should be borne before the mayor within the city and liberties. The governing charter, granted by James I. in 1609, constituted the city a county of itself, excepting the sites of the king's castle and the county court-house and gaol ; conferred an exclusive admiralty jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, over so much of the Shannon as extends three miles north-east of the city to the main sea, with all its creeks, banks, and rivulets within those limits ; constituted the mayor, recorder, and four of the aldermen annually elected, justices of the peace for the county of the city ; and incorporated a society of mer-chants of the staple, with the privileges of the merchants of the staple of Dublin and Waterford. By the "New Rules" of the 25th of Chas. II., the lord-lieutenant and privy council were invested with the power of approving and confirming the appointment of the principal officers of the corporation, who were thereby required to take the oath of supremacy, and the election of all corporate officers was taken away from the body of freemen, and vested in the common council ; the discussion of any matter connected with municipal affairs in the general assembly of freemen, or Court of D'Oyer Hun-dred, which had not previously passed the common council, was forbidden under penalty of disfranchise-ment ; and it was provided, as in other corporate towns, that foreigners and other Protestant settlers in the town should be admissible to the freedom. James II. granted a new charter after the seizure of the franchises under a decree of the exchequer, but the judgment of that court having been subsequently set aside, it became void ; and the constitution of the municipality continued unaltered until the year 1823, when an act of the 4th of Geo. IV., c. 126, commonly called the "Limerick Regulation Act," partially remodelled the powers of the corporatiomm. Numerous incorporated trading companies or guilds were established under these different charters, several of which still exist, but are not recognised as com-ponent parts of the corporation, and do not appear to have ever exercised any corporate rights. The guild of merchants incorporated by James I. having become extinct, was revived by the act of 1823, but has never since met, nor has any attempt been made to enforce its charter, its objects being effectually accomplished by the Chamber of Commerce. The corporation, under the charter of James I., is styled "The Mayor, Sheriffs, and Citizens of the City of Limerick ;" and consists of a mayor, two sheriffs, and an indefinite number of alder-men, burgesses, and freemen, aided by a recorder, four charter justices, a town-clerk (who is also clerk of the crown and of the peace for the county of the city), chamberlain, common speaker, water-bailiff (which office is to be abolished under the New Bridge Act), sword-bearer, high constable, petty constables, serjeants-at--mace, weigh-master, crane-master, and other inferior officers. The mayor (which office and title were enjoyed by Limerick ten years before they were granted to Lon-don), the sheriffs, recorder, and town-clerk are annually elected by the common council on the 2nd Monday after the 24th of June ; the four charter justices by the same body on the 2nd Monday after the 29th of Sep-tember. The chamberlain is elected from among the burgesses for life or during pleasure, by the mayor, sheriffs, and recorder. The aldermen are elected for life from among the burgesses by the common council : the title, however, is a mere honorary distinction, usually conferred on the person who has served the oflice of mayor. The common speaker is elected every two years, under the provisions of the act of 1823, by the body of freemen assembled on the first Tuesday after June 24th, in the court of D'Oyer Hundred, and must be approved of by the common council before he can be sworn into office : the other officers are appointed re-spectively by the common council, the mayor, and the sheriffs. The freedom is obtained by birth, for the eldest son, or marriage with any daughter, of a freeman, also by apprenticeship to a freeman within the city, and by gift of the corporation : the admissions of freemen are made by the common council, subject to the appro-bation of the court of D'Oyer Hundred. The act of 1823 requires the council to hold quarterly meetings on the first Monday after June 24th, second Monday after Sept. 29th, and the first Mondays in January and April ; extraordinary meetings are convened on requisition of the mayor. All acts of the corporation, except the election of officers, must be now approved of and confirmed by the freemen at large in the court of D'Oyer Hundred, which was re-established by the act of 1823, after having for about seventy years previously fallen into almost total disuse, and is now held on the day following each of the four stated quarterly meetings of the common council, and also within a specified time after the extraordinary meet-ings of that body : it is composed of the entire body of freemen, and a certified minute of all proceedings at the meetings of the common council must be trans-mitted by the town-clerk to the common speaker, who presides over the court, for its approval. The city returned two representatives to the Irish par-liament from the period of its earliest convocations until the Union, after which it sent one member to the Imperial parliament ; but under the act of the 2nd of Wm. IV., c. 88, it sends two. Besides the freemen, the right of voting belonged to the freeholders of the county of the city, estimated in 1831 at about 2000, making the total number of electors at that period 2413. The above-named act has extended the franchise to #10 householders, and to #20 and #10 leaseholders for the respective terms of 14 and 20 years ; the non-resident freemen, except within seven miles, have been disfran-chised ; and the 40s. freeholders retain the privilege only for life. The number of electors, according to a return to an order of the select committee of the House of Commons, dated Feb. 14th, 1837, was 3186 ; of whom 912 were freeholders, 14 rent-chargers, 34 lease-holders, 1946 #10 householders, and 280 freemen : the sheriffs are the returning officers.
The liberties are divided into North and South by the Shannon : the limits of the North liberties vary from one to four statute miles, comprising 1714 acres, as rated to the Grand Jury cess ; the South liberties extend from four to five statute miles, comprehending 14,754 acres assessed, making in all 16,458 Irish acres, equal to about 26,600 statute acres, exclusively of the site of the town ; the small island of Inniscattery, about 60 miles distant, at the mouth of the Shannon, forms a part of the parish of St. Mary, and is within the jurisdiction of the corporation. The mayor is a justice of the peace within the county of the city, and ex officio a magistrate for the county at large ; he is admiral of the Shannon, and, with the recorder and aldermen, has very extensive magisterial and judicial powers connected with the exclusive admiralty jurisdiction given by the charter of Jas. I., being empowered to appoint all the officers of a court of admiralty, which court, however, has fallen into disuse ; he is a judge in local courts, and is named first in the commission with the judges at the assizes for the county of the city ; and is a coroner within the county of the city and the parts of the Shannon comprised within the admiralty jurisdiction, and, clerk of the markets. The other magistrates are the recorder and four charter justices ; six additional justices are appointed by the lord-lieutenant under the authority of the act of 1823. The county of the city has an exclusive criminal jurisdiction exercised by its magistrates at the court of quarter sessions and at petty sessions ; assizes are held for it twice a year by the mayor and the judges travelling the Munster circuit. The court of quarter sessions is held before the mayor, recorder, and other justices, for the trial of such cases as are not reserved for the assizes. Petty sessions are held every Wednesday and Saturday before the mayor and five or six of the civic magistrates. The chief civil court is the Tholsel or city court, in which the mayor and sheriffs preside as judges, assisted by the recorder, when present, as assessor, and the town-clerk as pro-thonotary : it is held under the charter of Henry V., which gave pleas, real and personal, to any amount arising within the county of the city : the court sits every Wednesday ; the process is either by attachment against goods, action against the person, or latitat, but the last is seldom resorted to. A court of conscience is held by the mayor every Thursday, by prescription, for the recovery of debts under 40s. late currency. The assistant barrister for the county of Limerick sits twice a year for the trial of civil bill cases within the county of the city. The ordinary revenues of the corporation are derived from rents of houses and lands in the city and liberties, the fishery of the salmon weir, tolls and customs (which yield by far the greatest portion), and the cleansing of the streets in the old city, producing a gross income of between #4000 and #5000 per annum. The peace preservation police consists of a chief magistrate, 1 chief officer of the second class, 49 men and 4 horses ; 37 men are stationed in the city barracks, and the remainder in the liberties : their expense for the year ending June 1st, 1836, was #1852. 1. 6., two-thirds of which was paid from the Consolidated Fund, and the remainder by Grand Jury presentment. This force is occasionally employed beyond the limits of the civic jurisdiction. The city is also the headquarters of the revenue police of the district, the other stations of which are Gort, Ennis, and Cashel ; it consists of a sub-inspector, a sub-officer, serjeant, and 15 privates. There are a lieutenant, two deputy-lieutenants, and 15 magistrates, including those already noticed. The amount of Grand Jury presentments for 1835 was #6311. 16. 4., of which #620. 15. 9. was for repairs of roads, bridges, &c. ; #3894. 9. 11. for public buildings, charities, salaries, and incidents ; #525 . 10. 4 ?. for police, and #1271. 0. 3?. for repayment of Government advances.
The city court-house was erected in 1763, at an expense of #700 only : it is 60 feet by 30, fronted with hewn stone, with a rustic gateway. The Exchange, erected in 1778 at an expense of #1500, is one of the chief ornaments of the old town ; the front is of hewn stone, and is adorned with seven Tuscan columns connected by a handsome balustrade. The council-chamber is a fine room of the Ionic order ; and there are various convenient municipal offices. The county court-house, on Merchants' quay, an elegant structure, completed in 1810, at an expense of #12,000, is a quadrangular building of hewn stone, with a portico, supported by four lofty pillars, and surrounded by a light iron balustrade : it contains civil and criminal courts, jury-rooms, and other offices. The city gaol, in the old town, is a gloomy quadrangular edifice, with which the old county gaol is now united ; but the buildings do not admit of proper classification, or sufficient means of employment. Yet, notwithstanding these disadvantages, it is remarkably well regulated, orderly, and clean. The new county gaol, which occupies a remarkably favourable situation on the south-east side of the city, was completed in 1821, at an expense of #23,000, and #2000 more was afterwards expended on additions : it has a noble castellated appearance, and its internal construction and arrange-ment are exceedingly well contrived. The grand entrance is composed of hewn stone, and is of the Doric order. In the centre is a polygonal tower, 60 feet high, con-taining on successive stories the governor's residence, the committee-room, a chapel, and an hospital, and having round the second story an arcade commanding the several yards. Five rays of buildings diverge from this tower, forming ten wards, each communicating by a cast-iron bridge with the chapel, and containing in the whole 22 apartments for debtors, and 103 cells for criminals. Between the wall immediately surrounding these and the outer wall is a space containing two tread-wheels, the female prison, various offices, and some ornamented plots. The whole is supplied with excellent water from two springs.
Limerick city and county (Part 2)
The EPISCOPAL SEE of LIMERICK, one of the eleven which constitute the ecclesi-astical province of Cashel, is 27 miles in length and 17 in breadth, extending over an estimated surface of 306,950 acres, of which 12,500 are in Clare and the remainder in Limerick. It is said to have been founded in the 6th or 7th century by St. Munchin, who was consecrated bishop of it by St. Patrick. No further mention is made of the bishoprick until after the settlement of the Ostmen or Danes in Limerick, and their subsequent conversion to Christianity, when, about the year 1110, Gille, or Gilbert, a Dane, who disclaimed the authority of the Irish prelates, was consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury and governed the see till 1140. In the charter of Donald O'Brien, King of Limerick, in 1194, the bishops are called Lumnicenses and Lumnicani, from Lumniach, the Irish name of the city. In 1195, the ancient see of Inniscathay or Inniscattery was united with this bishoprick. In 1284, Gerald le Maresehal succeeded in recovering the episcopal property which had been usurped by the bishops of Emly and Killaloe during the period the Danish bishops held it under the archbishop of Canterbury. This property was extensive and valu-able at the Reformation' but was afterwards so much diminished by grants to the Fitzgerald family that the see of Ardfert and Aghadoe was added to it in 1660, and has ever since been annexed to it. The see of Limerick is valued in the king's books at #40 sterling, according to an extent returned in the 5th of Chas. I. The see lands comprise 6720 acres ; the gross yearly revenue of the bishoprick, including Ardfert and Agha doe, amounted to #5368. 13. 5., on an average of three years ending Jan. 1, 1832. The palace is a modern brick edifice in the New town, with a front to the Shannon, commanding an extensive view of the opposite shores of the county of Clare. The consis-torial court is held in the city by the vicar-general, with a surrogate and registrar, who is keeper of the Diocesan records, the oldest of which is intituled the "Liber Niger," copied by Bishop Adams in 1616, from a book which he states to have been then much defaced by age, and to contain an account of all the parishes, their procurations, taxation, subsidies, &c.
The cathedral, which is said to have been founded and endowed by Donald O'Brien, King of Limerick, and is dedicated to St. Mary, was enlarged by Donat O'Brien about the year 1200, greatly adorned by Bishop Eustace del Ewe early in the fourteenth century, partly re-edified by the citizens in 1490, much im-proved by Bishop Adams in the 17th century, care-fully restored after the wars of the same century, and improved at various subsequent periods. It is a venerable Gothic building, imi the English town, sur-rounded with graduated battlements, and has at the west end a square tower 120 feet high, containing eight bells, and surmounted by turrets at the angles. The interior is composed of a nave and choir, separated from tIme aisles by pointed arches : the choir is 91 feet by 30, with a fine window at the east end : the bishop's throne and the stalls of the dignitaries exhibit some curious carved work : there is a powerful organ. In the nave and aisles are several recesses, formerly endowed as chapels by various families ; two of these now form the consistorial court and the vestry ; and under the arches separating the aisles from the choir are galleries, for the corporation and the officers of the garrison. At the communion table is a handsome modern Gothic screen. Among the numerous monuments, besides those of several prelates, the most remarkable is the splendid tomb of Donogh, the great Earl of Thomond, on the north side of the choir, composed of three compartments, of marble of different colours, and surrounded and sup ported by pillars of the Ionic, Corinthian, and Com-posite orders, and decorated with his arms and various trophies. There is also a fine monument of the Galway family. The chapter consists of a dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, archdeacon, and the 11 preben daries of St. Munchin, Donoghmore, Ballycahane, Kil-peacon, Tullybracky, Killeedy, Disert, Ardeanny, Croagh, Athnett, and Effin. The corps of the deanery consists of the rectory of St3/4 Mary, the rectories and vicarages of St. Nicholas and Cappagh, and the rectories of Cahirnarry, Bruree, and Mungrett. The deanery lands comprise 80? statute acres, let on lease at a rent of #88. 2. 5. and an annual renewal fine of #13. 16. 11?., the gross annual income, including these lands, is #1568 ; the deanery-house is in the city. The dean enjoys the right of presentation to the vicarages of Mungrett and Bruree, and to the perpetual cure of Cahirnarry. The corps of the precentorship consists of the rectories and vicarages of Kilfenny and Loughill, the rectories of Nantinan, Shanagolden, Knocknagaul and Dromdeely, and the vicarage of Morgans ; the pre-centor has the right of presentation to the vicarage of Dromdeely : that of the chancellorship consists of the rectory of Rathkeale, the rectories and vicarages of Kilseannell, Clounagh, Clounshire, and the entire rectory of Dundonnell ; of the treasurership, the rectories of St. Patrick and Cahirvally, the rectory and vicarage of Emlygrennan, and the chapelry of Kilquane ; and of the archdeaconry, the rectories of St. Michael and Ardagh, and the entire rectory of Kildimo. The economy fund arises from the tithes of the union of Kilmallock, and the rents of several very valuable glebes, amounting on an average to #1400 annually. The diocesan school-house was erected in 1611 in the city ; but having fallen into decay some years since, it was sold by the Board of Education, and the proceeds, with the addition of #400, presented by the corporation, have been expended in the purchase of a new site ; but the house has not yet been built. In 1823, the Diocesan schools of Killaloe and Kilfenora were united with that of Limerick, and the income augmented to #150 per ann3/4 The school is held in the private residence of the headmaster. The total number of parishes is 92, of which 17 are unions, 3 without provision for cure of souls, and the remainder single parishes. The total number of churches is 42, with 2 chapels of ease, besides five places of worship in school-houses or other buildings licensed for divine service : the number of glebe-houses is 28.
In the R. C. divisions the see is a separate diocese, being one of 7 suffragan to the archbishop of Cashel, and comprising 39 parochial benefices or unions, con-taining 78 chapels, the spiritual duties of which are performed by 37 parish priests, two administrators of the bishop's mensals, 54 coadjutors or curates, and two supernumeraries, besides whom there are 4 superan nuated sick or unemployed clergymen. The bishop's parishes are those of St. John and St. Patrick, both in the county of the city ; his residence is at Park-house, near the city. The cathedral is the church of St. John.
The parishes within the bounds of the county of the city are those of St. Michael, which comprehends all the Newtown ; St. Mary. St. Nicholas, St. John, St. Munchin, and St. Laurence, in which the old town, in-cluding the suburb of Thomond-gate is included ; and Cahirnarry, Cahirvally. Derrygalvin, Donoughmore, Killeely, Kilmurry and St. Patrick, together with parts of those of Abington, Carrigparson, Crecora, Kilkeedy, Kilnegarruff, Knocknegaul, Mungrett and Stradhally, in the rural district of the city ; besides which is the extra-parochial district of St. Francis's abbey The parish of St. Michael, or New town of Limerick, being exempt from the payment of Grand Jury cess, two local acts have been passed for its interior regula tion, in the 47th and 51st of George III., under which the sum of #461. 10. 9. is raised towards defraying the expenses of the City Gaol, Fever Hospital and House of Industry, being, in fact, in aid of the Grand Jury cess of the county of the city. The Old town, though containing 29,000 inhabitants, pays to this tax no more than #35, which, as it is the only local assess-ment, indicates the degree of poverty that prevails there. The remainder of the Grand Jury cess, amounting on an average to upwards of #6000 per annum, is levied entirely off the agricultural districts by a tax of from 7s. to 8s. per acre, being about twice as much as the assess-ment on the adjoining lands in the county at large. Under the act of the 51st of Geo. III., besides the payment of the sum above mentioned, rates are levied on the New town for paving, lighting, watching, and cleansing that part of the city, to the extent of 3s. in the pound on inhabited houses above the value of #10 per annum, and of 4d. in the pound on uninhabited houses and stores : houses under the value of #10 are exempt. A sum of about #65 is also raised for the pur-pose of burying paupers and taking care of foundlings. The number of houses assessed in 1835 was 914, valued at #28,766, at the rate of 2s. 3d. ; the number of stores 146, valued at #10,257, at the rate of 3?d. The assessment amounted to #3388. 16. 9. The com-missioners for assessing the tax, twenty-one in num-ber, are inhabitants of the city, and seven of them retire from office every second year. The living is a rectory, united, from time immemorial, to part of the rectory of Kildimo and the rectory of Ardagh, which three parishes constitute the union of St. Michael and the corps of the archdeaconry of Limerick, in the pa-tronage of the Bishop. The tithes amount to #90 per annum : the gross income of the arebdeaconry, includ-ing the rent of a small glebe, is #620. 17. 8. per an-num. The church was destroyed in the siege of 1651 and has not been rebuilt, but there is a chapel of ease, called St. George's, built and endowed in 1789 by the Pery family : it is a plain commodious edifice ; its east window, which is very lofty, formerly belonged to the old Franciscan abbey ; the curate is appointed by the Earl of Limerick. An episcopal chapel was erected in this parish, in 1832, in connection with the asylum for blind females. The entrance is beneath an entabla-ture supported by lofty and very chaste Doric columns : the minister is elective, and is paid by voluntary con-tributions. St. George's male and female parochial schools are in connection with the Kildare-place Society, but are chiefly supported by voluntary subscriptions and the sale of needlework ; they afford instruction to 214 children. There are also schools in connection with the London Hibernian Society, and the Wesleyan Methodists : very large schools for males and females are in course of erection from a bequest by Mrs. Villiers. The Limerick Academy in Cecil-street, founded and conducted by Messrs. Brice and Brown, was opened in 1836. It consists of a commodious house for the accommnodation of resident pupils and two spacious classrooms : its object is to afford the means of a complete education from the earliest infancy to the higher departments of collegiate study, based on the principle of exercising the understanding as well as the memory. At present the system of education comprises the usual branches of' an English course combined with that of classic literature and science. The diocesan school is in this parish. St. Mary's parish is a rectory entire, united from time immemorial to the rectories and vicarages of St. Nicholas and Cappagh, and the rectories of Cahirnarry, Bruree, and Mungrett, constituting the corps of the deanery ; it is in the patronage of the Crown. The cathedral is considered to be the parish church of this parish and of that of St. Nicholas. The blue coat hospital, situated near the cathedral, was founded in 1717, by the Rev. J. Moore, who bequeathed some property in Dublin for its support : about the same time the corporation aided it by an annual grant of #20, and in 1724 Mrs. Craven bequeathed several houses in Limerick for the same purpose. After having fallen into decay, it was revived in 1772 by the bishop and dean, the latter of whom has the management of it. It supports 15 boys, who wear a uniform of blue and yellow. St. Nicholas's parish, a rectory and vicarage, united to St. Mary's, con-tains 1784 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act: the tithes amount to #216. 18. 5. The church was destroyed in the siege of 1651, since which time service has been performed in the cathedral. A school for the education of 20 boys and 20 girls is maintained under a bequest of Dr. Jer. Hall, in 1698, for children of poor Protestant parents in St. Mary's and St. Nicholas's parishes. St. Munchin's parish, situated partly in the King's island, partly in the North liberties, and partly in the county of Clare, contains 3622 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act : the living is a rec-tory, united from time immemorial to the rectory and vicarage of Killonehan, and the rectory of Drehidtarsna, which three parishes constitute the corps of the prebend of' St. Munchin in the cathedral of St. Mary, Limerick, and in the patronage of the Bishop. The tithes amount to #276. 18. 5.: those of all the parishes in the union amount to #466. 2. 9?. The church, which stands on the north side of the city, is enclosed on the north by the old town wall, along which an elevated terrace commands a fine view over the Shannon ; it was rebuilt in 1827, at an expense of #1460, of which #900 was a loan from the Board of First Fruits ; it is a handsome edifice, with a lofty square tower embattled and crowned with pinnacles : this church is said to have been founded by St. Munchin, and was the cathedral until the building of St. Mary's. A school for boys and another for girls of this and the adjoining parishes was founded by a bequest of Mrs. Villiers in 1819. St. Laurence's parish is a rectory entire, in the patronage of the Corporation : it is of small extent, having no church, and the tithes amount to only #25. The three parishes of St. Mary, St. Mun-chin, and St. Nicholas form the English town. St. John's parish is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Earl of Limerick. The vicar derives his income from an assessment on the houses, which originally pro-duced #160 per annum ; but owing to the removal of the principal inhabitants it sunk to about #50, and has been augmented by a grant of #25 per annum from Primate Boulter's fund. There is a glebe-house, erected by a gift of #369. 4. and a loan of #240 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1828. The church is an ancient edifice, comprising a nave with a north and south aisle extending the whole length of the building ; it has recently been repaired by a grant of #185. 19. 3. from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, This parish forms the Irish town.
In the R. C. arrangements the county of the city is divided into the parishes or districts of St. Mary, St. John, St. Michael, St. Patrick, and St. Lelia. St. Mary's parish comprises the whole of the King's Island, the English town, and the Little or Sluice Island, thus em-bracing the whole of the Protestant parish of St. Mary, parts of St. Munchin's and St. Nicholas's, and the ex-tra-parochial district of St. Francis : the chapel is a large plain cruciform edifice, built in 1749, on the Sluice Is-land ; the altar exhibits three styles of architecture finely combined, and has a good copy of Michael Angelo's picture of the Crucifixion. A female school established in this parish, some years since, by the religious sister hood of St. Clare was adopted, after the departure of that body from Limerick, by the sisterhood of the Presentation convent ; and on the breaking up of that establishment in 1836, the National Board of Education granted #40 towards its support, and it was placed under the charge of the Rev. Dr. Hanrahan, P.P. ; it is still held in the convent under the superintendence of two of the lay-sisters of St. Clare, affords instruction to 400 children, and is supported by subscriptions and charity sermons. St. John's parish comprises the Pro-testant parish of St. Laurence, and that part of St. Michael's known by the name of the Assembly Mall ; this is the bishop's parish, and the church is therefore called the cathedral. It is a large cruciform building, erected in 1753 : the altar, which is very splendid, has a picture of the Crucifixion by Collopy, a native artist. St. Michael's parish is coterminous with the Protestant parish of the same name, with the exception of the Assembly Mall. The chapel, situated near the corn market, was built in 1779, and was then surrounded by open fields : it was considerably enlarged in 1805, and is now the largest and finest in the city : it can accommodate 2500 persons. In this parish there are three orders of friars. The Dominicans have their house and chapel in Glent-worth-street : the latter, a large edifice in the early Gothic style, built in 1815, is enriched with a painting of the Crucifixion : the community consists of a prior and four friars. The Augustinians, whose community consists of a prior and two friars, have their house and chapel in St. George's-street ; the latter was built for a theatre, and was purchased by the friars in 1824 : the boxes and galleries are still preserved as seats for the congregation : it is lighted from the dome : the altar, supported by Corinthian pillars, is enriched with a pic-ture of the Ascension by Collopy. The Franciscans, whose community consists of a prior and two friars, have their house and chapel near Wellesley-bridge ; the latter is a large edifice in the Gothic style, comprising a centre and wings, with a handsome gallery : the altar is very fine and has a splendid painting of the Ma-donna. The brothers of the Christian Schools, six in number, have a school in this parish, and another in St. John's, in which about 600 children are educated ; the funds are raised by collections made every Saturday throughout the city by the brethren. A female school, established by the Rev. Dr. Hogan, P.P., in 1822, is chiefly supported by him, and a new school-house capable of containing 200 girls is now being built at his expense. Adjoining the R. C. chapel is a school founded and en-dowed by Mrs. Meade, for the education of children of R. C. parents. St. Patrick's parish is in the liberties : the church, built in 1816, is on the Dublin road ; it is in the form of the letter T, and is small but neatly fitted up ; the building was much improved in 1835. This parish, with those of Kilmurry and Derrygalvin, with which it is united, form the bishop's mensal. St. Lelia's parish is composed of the parishes of St. Munchin and St. Nicholas within the liberties north of the river, and that of Killeely in the county of Clare. The chapel, situated at Thomond-gate, is a large plain cruciform edifice, built in 1744 : it is the first R. C. place of worship publicly erected in Limerick since the revolu-tion. In this parish is a school established by the Rev. P. Walsh, P.P., in which 380 children are edu-cated ; it is supported by subscriptions and charity sermons.
The Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Munster have a small but very elegant meeting-house in the New town : they are of the second class. Here also the Society of Friends have a neat meeting-house, near which is a large and elegant place of worship, of the Gothic style without, and the Grecian within, belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists, and not far from it another, in the mixed Gothic style, of the Primitive Wesleyan Methodists. The Independents also have a plain but neat meeting-house.
The County Hospital was founded in 1759 by the exertions of the late Mr. Vandeleur, surgeon, aided by the Pery and Hartstonge families. The present building on the new Cork road, which was completed in 1811, at an expense of #7100, has a front of 114 feet, and contains 10 wards for males and 6 for females ; the number of patients admitted in the year ending April 1st, 1836, was 632, at an expense of #1520. Barrington's hospital, called by the act of the 11th of Geo. IV. the "City of Limerick infirmary," was founded in 1829 by Sir Joseph Barrington, Bart., and his sons, Matthew, Daniel, Croker, and Samuel. The hospital, built on George's quay at an expense of upwards of #4000, contains six large wards, capable of holding 60 beds ; the number at present is 35. It was given by the founders to the city and opened under the new arrangement in Nov. 1831 : it is supported by voluntary subscriptions and a grant from Government. Attached to the institution is a good medical library : a wing is now building for a lying-in hospital and another is projected for a fever hospital. St. John's Fever and Lock hospital was founded in 1781 by Lady Hartstonge ; in the year 1836 it had 1601 patients ; the expenses were #1520. 10. The Lying-in Hospital, 'opened in Nelson-street in 1812, under the control of a board of trustees, is supported by subscriptions and the interest of a bequest of #1000 from Mrs. White :
upwards of 400 patients have been annually admitted into it since its establishment. There is also a dis-pensary. The District Lunatic Asylum, for the counties of Limerick, Clare, and Kerry, is a very extensive edifice on the new Cork road, completed in 1826. It is 429 feet by 314 : the centre forms an octagon, from which four wings diverge containing cells for patients. It was originally intended for 150 curable lunatics, but, an additional building has been lately erected for those considered incurable. There is a considerable portion of land, in the cultivation of which many of the inmates are beneficially engaged. The system of management, which is confined to moral treatment, excluding all co-ercive or severe measures, is extremely well conducted. The total cost of the buildings, exclusive of the purchase of land, was #35,490. The House of Industry, founded in 1774 by Grand Jury presentments on the county and city, to which was added #200 by the late Dr. Edw. Smyth, of Dublin, towards providing thirteen cells for the insane, was at first calculated to accommodate 200 in-mates : the number, prior to 1823, was augmented to 380 ; a wing was then added for the accommodation of seventy infirm women, and two work-rooms for spinners and weavers. The inmates are employed in various occupa-tions, and a strict classification is observed.
The oldest almshouse is that of Dr. Hall, founded about the commencement of the last century. The present neat and convenient edifice, erected in 1761, con-tains apartments for thirteen men and twelve women, who receive each #5 a year ; also school-rooms, and, an episcopal chapel. The annual income is #304, part of which is applied to the use of Hall's school, already noticed, and to some minor endowments. The Corpora-tion almshouse, erected soon after the siege of Limerick, on ground anciently occupied by St. Nicholas's church, is adapted to the reception of 22 reduced widows, each having 40 shillings a year and the use of a garden. The corporation also pays certain annuities to the widows of aldermen and burgesses. St. George's Parochial Asylum, instituted by the late Rev. W. D. Hoare, accom-modates 14 Protestant widows. Mrs. Villiers' alms-house, erected a few years ago, in pursuance of the will of Mrs. Hannah Villiers, is a handsome Gothic struc-ture of stone, forming three sides of a square ; and is an asylum for 12 Protestant or Presbyterian widows, each of whom receives #24 Irish per annum ; a pre-ference is to be given to any descendant of the testatrix who may apply for admission. The widow of Ald. Cra-ven founded an almshouse for poor Protestant widows ; the building has been taken down ; but 50 widows of the parishes of St. Mary, St. John, and St. Munchin annually receive #4 each ; the remainder is divided at Christmas among the poor. The same lady also left #60, the interest of which is given to confined debtors and the poor of the city parishes. The widow of George Rose, Esq., deposited #800 in the hands of the dean and chapter, the interest to be distributed every Christ-mas equally among sixteen poor widows. The interest of divers sums given at various periods by the members of the Pery family, amounting to #17 per annum, is distributed among the poor of St. John's parish. St. John's parochial almshouse for seven poor Protestant widows is supported by subscriptions and by bequests of Mrs. Craven, Mrs. Crone, and the Earl of Ran-furly ; and Mrs. Banks having bequeathed the sum of #8768. 12. 8. to trustees for charitable purposes, it has been apportioned to the Fever Hospital, the Female Orphan Asylum, the Lying-in Hospital, the House of Industry, the county Infirmary, and the Dispensary. A Charitable Loan Fund, formed, in 1770, chiefly by subscriptions of the Pery family, has afforded accommoda-tion to many thousands by loans of three guineas each. In 1810, the inhabitants subscribed the Jubilee Loan fund, amounting to #1200, which has since accumu-lated by the addition of interest : about #120 is lent weekly, in sums of not more than #4 each, which are repaid by weekly instalments. A Fund for the En-couragement of Industry was established in 1822, out of the surplus fund subscribed in England for the dis-tressed Irish, the loans being limited to #6 ; the sums so issued in the year ending March 17th, 1836, amounted to #4200. 10,, and the amount repaid with interest during the same period was #4500. 13. 11. A Cha-ritable Pawn Office, under the title of the "Mont de Piete," similar to establishments of the same name throughout the continent, has been instituted by Mat-thew Barrington, Esq., with the view of allowing the poor small loans at low interest ; the capital is raised by debentures, to be repaid with interest ; and the profits of the institution are to be applied towards the support of Barrington's Hospital. The building, which adjoins the hospital, is now almost complete ; it is nearly circular, with a piazza, surmounted by a lofty and ele-gant dome and cupola, and has been erected at the sole expense of the founder. A company for grant-ing annuities to widows, settlements for wives, and endowments for children, on payment of an annual pre-mium, was established in 1806, under the title of the Munster General Annuity Endowment Association. An Asylum for the Blind, the house and chapel for which have been lately built, will accommodate 12 men and 12 women ; a Magdalene Asylum, conducted by a commit-tee of ladies, has been established on a small scale ; a Mendicity Association is supported by voluntary contri-butions ; and, in 1826, an Institution for the Relief of Sick and Indigent Room-keepers was formed by a subscription of several hundred pounds : there are also a Savings' Bank and a Mechanics' Institute.
Limerick anciently contained two Augustinian mo-nasteries, one of regular canons, and the other of her-mits : the regular canons had another house in the contiguous parish of Mungrett, which was destroyed by the Danes in 1107. In 1227, a Dominican friary was founded in the city by Donogh Carbragh O'Brien, Prince of Thomond, which became a place of great magnifi-cence, and was the burial-place of various prelates and other eminent men : part of the walls still exists, and the cemetery formed the garden of the Presentation convent. There were also a Franciscan convent, founded by Wil-liam Fion de Burgo ; a house of canonesses of the order of St. Augustine, founded in 1171, by Donald O'Brien, King of Limerick, and a house of the Knights Tem-plars ; but no remains of these buildings are now discernible. Its military antiquities consist of the ruins of the fortress called King John's Castle, at the end of Thomond bridge, comprehending the great gateway, defended by two massive round towers, and the outer walls, having similar defences, and presenting a fine relic of the military architecture of that remote period ; of dilapidated portions of the walls and towers of the citadel nearly contiguous, in which the castle barracks have been erected ; of various portions of the town walls, and of some of the outworks, especially a fort on the King's Island, north of the old town. There are also some remains of the celebrated Black Battery, close to which was the breach defended so heroically against William's army. In the rural parishes of the liberties are the ruins of several ancient forts. Of emi-nent natives were three prelates named Creagh, in the fifteenth century ; Richard Creagh, D.D., R. C. Arch-bishop of Armagh in the reign of Elizabeth, who died in the Tower of London, in 1585 ; James Arthur, D.D., Professor of Divinity at Salamanca ; James Nihell, M.D., the author of various medical treatises of considerable repute, born in 1705 ; John Fitzgibbon, Esq., an eminent lawyer, born at Ballysheeda, within the liberties, in 1731 ; the Rev. James White, parish priest of St. Mary's, who published a short description of the county at large in 1764, and also compiled annals of the city, which were never published ; John Martin, M.D., author of an essay on the Castle-Connell Spa ; Daniel Hayes, Esq., who died at an early age in 1767, after displaying con-siderable poetic ability ; Charles Johnston, who distinguished himself in the department of polite literature ; the Rev. Joseph Ignatius O'Halloran, D.D., Professor of Philosophy and Divinity in the Jesuits' College at Bourdeaux ; Sylvester O'Halloran, Esq., the historian, his brother ; Peter Woulfe, Esq., an eminent chymist and naturalist of the last century ; Viscount Pery, who had filled the speaker's chair in the commons' house of parliament in Ireland ; the Rt. Hon. John Fitzgibbon, Earl of Clare, and Lord High Chancellor of Ireland ; John Ferrar, a bookseller and printer of Limerick, who was author of several respectable topographical works concerning Limerick, Dublin, and Wicklow ; Timothy Collopy, distinguished as an historical and portrait painter ; William Palmer, who also rose to some emi-nence as an artist under Sir Joshua Reynolds, but died at an early age ; and Edward Fitzgerald, Esq., for some time editor of the Pilot Newspaper, in London. Limer-ick confers the titles of Earl and Viscount on the family of Pery.
PATRICK'S (ST), or SINGLAND, a parish, in the county of the city of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, on the southern bank of the Shannon and close to the city, a part of which is built on it ; containing 2331 inhabitants. The Shannon sweeps round the eastern, northern, and western sides of the parish, and the small river Groody, a branch of the preceding river, passes through it. The extent, as applotted under the tithe act, is 1359 acres, of the estimated annual value of £4629. The land, which is very fertile, is chiefly under tillage, and supplies the city with large quantities of vegetables ; along the banks of the Groody is a tract of rich meadow, liable, however, to casualties from floods. On this river are a bleach-green, a paper-mill, and a flour-mill : at the salmon-weir near the Shannon, is a very extensive flour-mill, which commands the whole water of that river : in the city suburbs is a large brewery. A short canal from the Abbey river to the Shannon, formed in 1758, intersects the parish from west to east. The city water-works and the county infirmary are in the parish. There are several very elegant seats, with small but highly ornamented demesnes : the principal are Park House, the residence of the Rt. Rev, Dr. Ryan, R. C. bishop of Limerick ; Corbally House, of Poole Gabbett, Esq. ; and Corbally Park, of Pierce Shannon, Esq. The living is a rectory and perpetual cure, in the diocese of Limerick ; the rectory was united, at a period prior to any known record, to the entire rectory of Cahirvally, the rectory and vicarage of Emly-Grenan, and the chapelry of Kilquane, which constitute the corps of the treasurership of the cathedral of Limerick, and in the patronage of the Bishop, who is also patron of the perpetual cure, which comprises the parishes of St. Patrick and Kilquane. The tithes amount to £156. 18. 5-. per ann., and of the benefice to £585. 12. 6-. The church has been in ruins since the war of 1641, when it was destroyed together with an adjoining round tower : the cemetery is still used as a place of burial for Roman Catholics, In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising this parish and those of Kilmurry and Derrygalvin, in which union there are two chapels. Singland was the scene of a battle fought in 943 between the Munster Irish and the Danes, in which the latter were defeated, driven into the town, and forced to pay a heavy contribution. Cromwell, Ireton, Wm. III and de Ginkell all had their camps and intrenchments here when they invested Limerick ; military weapons have consequently been frequently found in the grounds. Some remains of the ancient military roads from Dublin and from Cork which passed through the parish are still traceable, The lands of Singland are held under the vicars choral of Limerick by a lease, from which that body derives little advantage.